The structural and functional units of heteromeric amino acid transporters - The heavy subunit rBAT dictates oligomerization of the heteromeric amino acid transporters
ABSTRACT Heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a catalytic light subunit and a heavy subunit linked by a disulfide bridge. We analyzed the structural and functional units of systems b0,+ and xC-, formed by the heterodimers b0,+ AT-rBAT and xCT-4F2hc, respectively. Blue Native gel electrophoresis, cross-linking, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in vivo indicate that system b0,+ is a heterotetramer [b0,+ AT-rBAT]2, whereas xCT-4F2hc seems not to stably or efficiently oligomerize. However, substitution of the heavy subunit 4F2hc for rBAT was sufficient to form a heterotetrameric [xCT-rBAT]2 structure. The functional expression of concatamers of two light subunits (which differ only in their sensitivity to inactivation by a sulfhydryl reagent) suggests that a single heterodimer is the functional unit of systems b0,+ and xC-.
- SourceAvailable from: Yuzhuo Wang
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- "The 4F2hc subunit is a type II membrane glycoprotein commonly expressed in cells since it acts as a subunit for various amino acid transporters (Chillaron et al., 2001; Verrey et al., 2004). It may be noted that the 4F2hc subunit of x À c can be replaced by rBAT, another HSHAT, with retention of x À c activity (Wang et al., 2003; Fernandez et al., 2006). "
ABSTRACT: The x(c) (-) cystine/glutamate antiporter is a major plasma membrane transporter for the cellular uptake of cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. Its main functions in the body are mediation of cellular cystine uptake for synthesis of glutathione essential for cellular protection from oxidative stress and maintenance of a cystine:cysteine redox balance in the extracellular compartment. In the past decade it has become evident that the x(c) (-) transporter plays an important role in various aspects of cancer, including: (i) growth and progression of cancers that have a critical growth requirement for extracellular cystine/cysteine, (ii) glutathione-based drug resistance, (iii) excitotoxicity due to excessive release of glutamate, and (iv) uptake of herpesvirus 8, a causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma. The x(c) (-) transporter also plays a role in certain CNS and eye diseases. This review focuses on the expression and function of the x(c) (-) transporter in cells and tissues with particular emphasis on its role in disease pathogenesis. The potential use of x(c) (-) inhibitors (e.g., sulfasalazine) for arresting tumor growth and/or sensitizing cancers is discussed.Journal of Cellular Physiology 06/2008; 215(3):593-602. DOI:10.1002/jcp.21366 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inherited aminoaciduria caused by defective cationic amino acid (CAA) transport at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the intestine and kidney. LPI is caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene, which encodes the y(+)LAT-1 protein, the catalytic light chain subunit of a complex belonging to the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Coexpression of 4F2hc (the heavy chain subunit) and y(+)LAT-1 induces y(+)L activity (CAA transport). So far a total of 43 different mutations of the SLC7A7 gene, nine of which newly reported here, have been identified in a group of 130 patients belonging to at least 98 independent families. The mutations are distributed along the entire gene and include all different types of mutations. Five polymorphisms within the SLC7A7 coding region and two variants found in the 5'UTR have been identified. A genuine founder effect mutation has been demonstrated only in Finland, where LPI patients share the same homozygous mutation, c.895-2A>T. LPI patients show extreme variability in clinical presentation, and no genotype-phenotype correlations have been defined. This phenotypic variability and the lack of a specific clinical presentation have caused various misdiagnoses. At the biochemical level, the elucidation of SLC7A7 function will be necessary to understand precise disease mechanisms and develop more specific and effective therapies. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of SLC7A7 mutations and their role in LPI pathogenesis.Human Mutation 01/2008; 29(1):14-21. DOI:10.1002/humu.20589 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many neuroscientists assume that ambient extracellular glutamate concentrations in the nervous system are biologically negligible under nonpathological conditions. This assumption is false. Hundreds of studies over several decades suggest that ambient extracellular glutamate levels in the intact mammalian brain are approximately 0.5 to approximately 5 microM. This has important implications. Glutamate receptors are desensitized by glutamate concentrations significantly lower than needed for receptor activation; 0.5 to 5 microM of glutamate is high enough to cause constitutive desensitization of most glutamate receptors. Therefore, most glutamate receptors in vivo may be constitutively desensitized, and ambient extracellular glutamate and receptor desensitization may be potent but generally unrecognized regulators of synaptic transmission. Unfortunately, the mechanisms regulating ambient extracellular glutamate and glutamate receptor desensitization remain poorly understood and understudied.The Neuroscientist 05/2008; 14(2):171-81. DOI:10.1177/1073858407308518 · 7.62 Impact Factor