Fernández, E. et al. The structural and functional units of heteromeric amino acid transporters. The heavy subunit rBAT dictates oligomerization of the heteromeric amino acid transporters. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 26552-26561
Heteromeric amino acid transporters are composed of a catalytic light subunit and a heavy subunit linked by a disulfide bridge. We analyzed the structural and functional units of systems b0,+ and xC-, formed by the heterodimers b0,+ AT-rBAT and xCT-4F2hc, respectively. Blue Native gel electrophoresis, cross-linking, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in vivo indicate that system b0,+ is a heterotetramer [b0,+ AT-rBAT]2, whereas xCT-4F2hc seems not to stably or efficiently oligomerize. However, substitution of the heavy subunit 4F2hc for rBAT was sufficient to form a heterotetrameric [xCT-rBAT]2 structure. The functional expression of concatamers of two light subunits (which differ only in their sensitivity to inactivation by a sulfhydryl reagent) suggests that a single heterodimer is the functional unit of systems b0,+ and xC-.
"These proteins are essential for the transport of organic molecules, especially amino acids. Together with slc7a9, slc3a1 represents the rBAT/b0,+AT transporter that is primarily localized in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubules . It is essential for the renal reabsorption of the amino acid cystin  and mutations in slc3a1 or slc7a9 interfere with the function of the rBAT/b0,+AT transporter. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor HNF1B, encoded by the TCF2 gene, plays an important role in the organogenesis of vertebrates. In humans, heterozygous mutations of HNF1B are associated with several diseases, such as pancreatic β-cell dysfunction leading to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY5), defective kidney development, disturbed liver function, pancreas atrophy, and malformations of the genital tract. The African claw frog Xenopus laevis is an excellent model to study the processes involved in embryogenesis and organogenesis, as it can be manipulated easily with a series of methods. In the present study, we overexpressed HNF1β mutants in the developing Xenopus embryo to assess their roles during organogenesis, particularly in the developing pronephric kidney. Towards this goal, we developed a heat-shock inducible binary Cre/loxP system with activator and effector strains. Heat-shock activation of the mutant HNF1B variants P328L329del and A263insGG resulted in malformations of various organs and the affected larvae developed large edemas. Defects in the pronephros were primarily confined to malformed proximal tubules. Furthermore, the expression of the proximal tubule marker genes tmem27 and slc3a1, both involved in amino acid transport, was affected. Both P328L329del and A263insGG downregulated expression of slc3a1. In addition, P328L329del reduced tmem27 expression while A263insGG overexpression decreased expression of the chloride channel clcnk and the transcription factor pax2. Overexpression of two mutant HNF1B derivatives resulted in distinct phenotypes reflected by either a reduction or an enlargement of pronephros size. The expression of selected pronephric marker genes was differentially affected upon overexpression of HNF1B mutations. Based on our findings, we postulate that HNF1B mutations influence gene regulation upon overexpression in specific and distinct manners. Furthermore, our study demonstrates that the newly established Cre/loxP system for Xenopus embryos is an attractive alternative to examine the gene regulatory potential of transcription factors in developing pronephric kidney as exemplified here for HNF1B.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33522. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033522 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The 4F2hc subunit is a type II membrane glycoprotein commonly expressed in cells since it acts as a subunit for various amino acid transporters (Chillaron et al., 2001; Verrey et al., 2004). It may be noted that the 4F2hc subunit of x À c can be replaced by rBAT, another HSHAT, with retention of x À c activity (Wang et al., 2003; Fernandez et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The x(c) (-) cystine/glutamate antiporter is a major plasma membrane transporter for the cellular uptake of cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. Its main functions in the body are mediation of cellular cystine uptake for synthesis of glutathione essential for cellular protection from oxidative stress and maintenance of a cystine:cysteine redox balance in the extracellular compartment. In the past decade it has become evident that the x(c) (-) transporter plays an important role in various aspects of cancer, including: (i) growth and progression of cancers that have a critical growth requirement for extracellular cystine/cysteine, (ii) glutathione-based drug resistance, (iii) excitotoxicity due to excessive release of glutamate, and (iv) uptake of herpesvirus 8, a causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma. The x(c) (-) transporter also plays a role in certain CNS and eye diseases. This review focuses on the expression and function of the x(c) (-) transporter in cells and tissues with particular emphasis on its role in disease pathogenesis. The potential use of x(c) (-) inhibitors (e.g., sulfasalazine) for arresting tumor growth and/or sensitizing cancers is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an inherited aminoaciduria caused by defective cationic amino acid (CAA) transport at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the intestine and kidney. LPI is caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene, which encodes the y(+)LAT-1 protein, the catalytic light chain subunit of a complex belonging to the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Coexpression of 4F2hc (the heavy chain subunit) and y(+)LAT-1 induces y(+)L activity (CAA transport). So far a total of 43 different mutations of the SLC7A7 gene, nine of which newly reported here, have been identified in a group of 130 patients belonging to at least 98 independent families. The mutations are distributed along the entire gene and include all different types of mutations. Five polymorphisms within the SLC7A7 coding region and two variants found in the 5'UTR have been identified. A genuine founder effect mutation has been demonstrated only in Finland, where LPI patients share the same homozygous mutation, c.895-2A>T. LPI patients show extreme variability in clinical presentation, and no genotype-phenotype correlations have been defined. This phenotypic variability and the lack of a specific clinical presentation have caused various misdiagnoses. At the biochemical level, the elucidation of SLC7A7 function will be necessary to understand precise disease mechanisms and develop more specific and effective therapies. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of SLC7A7 mutations and their role in LPI pathogenesis.
Human Mutation 01/2008; 29(1):14-21. DOI:10.1002/humu.20589 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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