We present the first characterisation of the mutational spectrum of the entire coding sequences and exon-intron boundaries of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes as well as large BRCA1 rearrangements in Portuguese families with inherited predisposition to breast/ovarian cancer. Of the 100 probands studied, pathogenic mutations were identified in 22 (24.7%) of 89 breast and/or ovarian cancer families with more than one affected member (15 in BRCA1 and seven in BRCA2), but in none of the 11 patients without family history of cancer. One (6.7%) of the BRCA1 mutations is a large deletion involving exons 11-15. Seven pathogenic point mutations are novel: 2088C>T, 2156delinsCC, and 4255_4256delCT in BRCA1 and 4608_4609delTT, 5036delA, 5583_5584insT, and 8923C>T in BRCA2. The novel 2156delinsCC was identified in three probands from different families and probably represents a founder mutation in our population. We also found a previously reported 3450_3453del4 mutation in three unrelated patients. In addition to the 22 pathogenic mutations, we identified 19 missense mutations of uncertain pathogenic significance, three of them (5241G>C in BRCA1 and IVS6+13C>T and 3731T>C in BRCA2) previously undescribed. The percentage of cases with truncating mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 was higher in breast/ovarian cancer (37.0%, mostly BRCA1) and male breast cancer (40%, all BRCA2) families than in families with only female breast cancer (17.5%). Interestingly, we found evidence for genetic anticipation regarding age at diagnosis of both breast and ovarian cancer in those families presenting affected members in more than one generation. These findings should be taken into consideration while planning screening and prophylactic measures in families with inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer.
"This common mutation has 40 records in the BIC database, and has been reported in other regions of Spain [18,19]. The c.470_471delCT (p.Ser157*) mutation in exon 8 was detected in 3 families, being also reported in other Spanish [20,21], Chinese  and in Portuguese populations . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Spain is heterogeneous and varies according to geographical origin of studied families. The contribution of these mutations to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has not been previously investigated in Asturian populations (Northern Spain).
In the present work, 256 unrelated high-risk probands with breast and/or ovarian cancer from families living in Asturias were analyzed for the presence of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation from October 2007 to May 2012. The entire coding sequences and each intron/exon boundaries of BRCA1/2 genes were screened both by direct sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA).
A total of 59 families (23%) were found to carry a pathogenic germ line mutation, 39 in BRCA1 and 20 in BRCA2. Twenty nine additional families (12%) carried an unknown significance variant. We detected 28 distinct pathogenic mutations (16 in BRCA1 and 12 in BRCA2), of which 3 mutations in BRCA1 (c.1674delA, c.1965C>A and c.2900_2901dupCT) and 5 in BRCA2 (c.262_263delCT, c.2095C>T, c.3263dupC, c.4030_4035delinsC, c.8042_8043delCA) had not been previously described.
The novel mutations c.2900_2901dupCT in BRCA1 and c.4030_4035delinsC in BRCA2 occurred in 8 and 6 families respectively and clustered in two separated small geographically isolated areas suggesting a founder effect. These 2 mutations, together with the Galician BRCA1 mutation c.211A>G (9 families), and the common BRCA1 mutation c.3331_3334delCAAG (6 families), account for approximately 50% of all affected families. By contrast, very frequent mutations in other Spanish series such as the BRCA1 Ashkenazi founder mutation c.68_69delAG, was found in only one family.
In this study we report the BRCA1 and BRCA2 spectrum of mutations and their geographical distribution in Asturias, which largely differ from other areas of Spain. Our findings may help design a first step recurrent mutation panel for screening high-risk breast and/or ovarian cancer families from this specific area.
BMC Cancer 05/2013; 13(1):243. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-243 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"It has been reported in 14.0%, 10.0%, 6.0% and 4.0% of Ashkenazi Jewish, German, Italian and Russian women with breast cancer [29-32], respectively. It was also described in a recent study from Portugal, where it appeared in approximately 1.0% of the series studied . In addition, in a recent multi-national study, Hamel et al. (2011)  identified this mutation in several European countries. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 5-10% of breast and ovarian carcinomas are hereditary and most of these result from germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In women of Ashkenazi Jewish ascendance, up to 30% of breast and ovarian carcinomas may be attributable to mutations in these genes, where 3 founder mutations, c.68_69del (185delAG) and c.5266dup (5382insC) in BRCA1 and c.5946del (6174delT) in BRCA2, are commonly encountered. It has been suggested by some authors that screening for founder mutations should be undertaken in all Brazilian women with breast cancer. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of three founder mutations, commonly identified in Ashkenazi individuals in a sample of non-Ashkenazi cancer-affected Brazilian women with clearly defined risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. Among 137 unrelated Brazilian women from HBOC families, the BRCA1c.5266dup mutation was identified in seven individuals (5%). This prevalence is similar to that encountered in non-Ashkenazi HBOC families in other populations. However, among patients with bilateral breast cancer, the frequency of c.5266dup was significantly higher when compared to patients with unilateral breast tumors (12.1% vs 1.2%, p = 0.023). The BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del mutations did not occur in this sample. We conclude that screening non-Ashkenazi breast cancer-affected women from the ethnically heterogeneous Brazilian populations for the BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del is not justified, and that screening for BRCA1c.5266dup should be considered in high risk patients, given its prevalence as a single mutation. In high-risk patients, a negative screening result should always be followed by comprehensive BRCA gene testing. The finding of a significantly higher frequency of BRCA1 c.5266dup in women with bilateral breast cancer, as well as existence of other as yet unidentified founder mutations in this population, should be further assessed in a larger well characterized high-risk cohort.
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 12/2011; 9(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1897-4287-9-12 · 1.47 Impact Factor
"According to data from the BIC database, this mutation has been cited 40 times mainly with Western European, Caucasian ethnicities but only in two families of Latin American/Caribbean ancestry and one family with Egyptian ethnicity (BIC). It has been reported to occur in Spain, Portugal [53, 54], Australia, Canada, South America (Chilean population)  and it is also a founder mutation in Hispanic families from Colombia  (BIC). These observations raise the question whether BRCA1: c.3331_3334delCAAG is an ancient mutation that has arisen once, or has occurred several times in human history. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 breast cancer susceptibility gene account for a large proportion of hereditary breast cancer families and show considerable ethnic and geographical variations. The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to hereditary breast cancer has not yet been thoroughly investigated in Middle Eastern and North African populations. In this study, 16 Tunisian high-risk breast cancer families were screened for germline mutations in the entire BRCA1 coding region and exon-intron boundaries using direct sequencing. Six families were found to carry BRCA1 mutations with a prevalence of 37.5%. Four different deleterious mutations were detected. Three truncating mutations were previously described: c.798_799delTT (916 delTT), c.3331_3334delCAAG (3450 delCAAG), c.5266dupC (5382 insC) and one splice site mutation which seems to be specific to the Tunisian population: c.212 + 2insG (IVS5 + 2insG). We also identified 15 variants of unknown clinical significance. The c.798_799delTT mutation occurred at an 18% frequency and was shared by three apparently unrelated families. Analyzing five microsatellite markers in and flanking the BRCA1 locus showed a common haplotype associated with this mutation. This suggests that the c.798_799delTT mutation is a Tunisian founder mutation. Our findings indicate that the Tunisian population has a spectrum of prevalent BRCA1 mutations, some of which appear as recurrent and founding mutations.
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