Effects of heptad repeat regions of f protein on the specific membrane fusion in paramyxoviruses.
ABSTRACT To identify the effects of heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) of F on the specific membrane fusion in paramyxoviruses.
Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create same enzyme sites on the F genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and human parainfluenza virus (hPIV). Gene recombination was used to get chimeric F proteins NDV C-HR1 and hPIV C-HR1 by exchanging HR1 fragments each other; NDV C-HR2 and hPIV C-HR2 were also obtained by the same way. All the chimeric F proteins were co-expressed with their homologous or heterogeneous HN in eukaryocytes. Cell fusion functions were assayed by Giemsa staining and reporter gene method. The expression efficiencies of F proteins were assayed with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS).
NDV C-HR1 and hPIV C-HR1 had 53.91 and 83.15% of fusion activities, and NDV C-HR2 and hPIV C-HR2 had 107.23 and 12.01% of fusion activities, respectively, as compared with their relevant wild types. The analysis of FACS indicated that the expression efficiencies of all the chimeric F proteins except NDV C-HR2 were lower than those of their relevant wild types.
HR1 of NDV F might be important for its specific membrane fusion, but HR2 of NDV F may not; both HR1 and HR2 of hPIV F may be important for its specific membrane fusion.
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ABSTRACT: We have recently reported the X-ray crystal structure of a fragment of the fusion protein (F) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). This work describes the methodology involved in the production and crystallization of that protein in recombinant form. The full-length cDNA of NDV-F was cloned and the ectodomain expressed in both CHO-K1 and Lec-22.214.171.124 cells. The recombinant protein, secreted as a single-chain polypeptide F0', was purified using a c-myc antibody affinity column followed by gel filtration chromatography. Electron microscopic imaging showed the F0' product to consist of unaggregated club-shaped particles. Trypsin treatment of F0' could be used to produce disulfide-linked F2 and F1' chains. However, imaging revealed extensive rosette-like aggregation of the trypsin-treated material, indicative of a conformational change. Only the non-trypsin-treated product was thus suitable for crystallization and two crystal forms were obtained, diffracting to ca. 3.5 and 4.0 A, respectively. Both crystal forms were used in the structure determination.Virology 12/2001; 290(2):290-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Paramyxoviruses initiate infection by attaching to cell surface receptors and fusing viral and cell membranes. Viral attachment proteins, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), hemagglutinin (HA), or glycoprotein (G), bind receptors while fusion (F) proteins direct membrane fusion. Because paramyxovirus fusion is pH independent, virus entry occurs at host cell plasma membranes. Paramyxovirus fusion also usually requires co-expression of both the attachment protein and the fusion (F) protein. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has assumed increased importance as a prototype paramyxovirus because crystal structures of both the NDV F protein and the attachment protein (HN) have been determined. Furthermore, analysis of structure and function of both viral glycoproteins by mutation, reactivity of antibody, and peptides have defined domains of the NDV F protein important for virus fusion. These domains include the fusion peptide, the cytoplasmic domain, as well as heptad repeat (HR) domains. Peptides with sequences from HR domains inhibit fusion, and characterization of the mechanism of this inhibition provides evidence for conformational changes in the F protein upon activation of fusion. Both proteolytic cleavage of the F protein and interactions with the attachment protein are required for fusion activation in most systems. Subsequent steps in membrane merger directed by F protein are poorly understood.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2003; 1614(1):73-84. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The fusion (F) protein of the paramyxovirus SV5 contains two heptad repeat regions, HRA adjacent to the fusion peptide and HRB proximal to the transmembrane domain. Peptides, N-1 and C-1, respectively, corresponding to these heptad repeat regions form a thermostable, alpha-helical trimer of heterodimers (S. B. Joshi, R. E. Dutch, and R. A. Lamb (1998). Virology 248, 20-34). Further characterization of the N-1/C-1 complex indicated that the C-1 peptides, which are predicted to residue on the outside of the complex, are resistant to digestion by several proteases when present in the complex. Only proteinase K digested most of the C-1 peptide, though the small remaining protease protected fragment of C-1 confers extreme thermostability on the proteinase-K-resistant N-1 trimeric coiled-coil. Carboxypeptidase Y digestion of the N-1/C-1 complex indicates that the C-1 peptides associate in an antiparallel orientation relative to the N-1 peptides. Electron microscopy of the N-1/C-1 complex showed a rod-shaped complex with an average length of 9.7 nm, consistent with all of N-1 existing as an alpha helix. Mutations at heptad repeat a and d residues of N-1, positions that are predicted to point inward to the center of the N-1 trimeric coiled-coil, were found to have varying effects as analyzed by circular dichroism measurements. The mutation I137M did not affect the helical structure of the isolated N-1 peptide but did affect the thermostability of the N-1/C-1 complex. Mutations L140M and L161M perturbed the helical structure formed by N-1 in isolation but did not affect formation of a thermostable N-1/C-1 complex. Finally, a peptide, SV5 F 255-293, corresponding to a proposed leucine zipper region, was analyzed for effects on N-1, C-1, or the N-1/C-1 complex. Circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that while the presence of peptide 255-293 increased the helical signal from either N-1 or the N-1/C-1 complex, no change in thermostability was observed, indicating that this region is not a component of the final, most stable core of the F protein.Virology 03/1999; 254(1):147-59. · 3.37 Impact Factor