Palm and partially hydrogenated soybean oils adversely alter lipoprotein profiles compared with soybean and canola oils in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects.
ABSTRACT Partially hydrogenated fat has an unfavorable effect on cardiovascular disease risk. Palm oil is a potential substitute because of favorable physical characteristics.
We assessed the effect of palm oil on lipoprotein profiles compared with the effects of both partially hydrogenated fat and oils high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Fifteen volunteers aged > or =50 y with LDL cholesterol > or =130 mg/dL were provided with food for each of 4 diets (35 d/phase) varying in type of fat (partially hydrogenated soybean, soybean, palm, or canola; two-thirds fat, 20% of energy). Plasma fatty acid profiles, lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a), glucose, insulin, HDL subfractions, and indicators of lipoprotein metabolism (HDL-cholesterol fractional esterification rate, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, phospholipid transfer protein, and paraoxonase activities) were measured at the end of each phase.
Plasma fatty acid profiles reflected the main source of dietary fat. Partially hydrogenated soybean and palm oils resulted in higher LDL-cholesterol concentrations than did soybean (12% and 14%, respectively; P < 0.05) and canola (16% and 18%; P < 0.05) oils. Apolipoprotein B (P < 0.05) and A-I (P < 0.05) concentrations mirrored the pattern of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, respectively. No significant effect on the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was observed for palm oil compared with the other dietary fats. HDL3 cholesterol was higher after palm oil than after partially hydrogenated and soybean oils (P < 0.05). Differences in measures of glucose and HDL intravascular processing attributable to dietary fat were small.
Palm and partially hydrogenated soybean oils, compared with soybean and canola oils, adversely altered the lipoprotein profile in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects without significantly affecting HDL intravascular processing markers.
SourceAvailable from: Francesca Crowe[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Individual studies have suggested that some circulating fatty acids are associated with prostate cancer risk, but have not been large enough to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by stage and grade of disease. METHODS: Principal investigators of prospective studies on circulating fatty acids and prostate cancer were invited to collaborate. Investigators provided individual participant data on circulating fatty acids (weight percent) and other characteristics of prostate cancer cases and controls. Prostate cancer risk by study-specific fifths of 14 fatty acids was estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Five thousand and ninety-eight case patients and 6649 control patients from seven studies with an average follow-up of 5.1 (SD = 3.3) years were included. Stearic acid (18:0) was inversely associated with total prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] Q5 vs Q1 = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.00, P trend = .043). Prostate cancer risk was, respectively, 14% and 16% greater in the highest fifth of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.29, Ptrend = .001) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.33, P trend = .003), but in each case there was heterogeneity between studies (P = .022 and P < .001, respectively). There was heterogeneity in the association between docosapentaenoic acid and prostate cancer by grade of disease (P = .006); the association was statistically significant for low-grade disease but not high-grade disease. The remaining 11 fatty acids were not statistically associated with total prostate cancer risk. CONCLUSION: There was no strong evidence that circulating fatty acids are important predictors of prostate cancer risk. It is not clear whether the modest associations of stearic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acid are causal.JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 09/2014; DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju240 · 15.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Indian dietary pattern has undergone major changes over the past 40 years. Many of these changes involve modification in dietary intake of fats and oils. In developing countries like India, vegetable oils are replacing animal fats because of the cost and health concerns. A wide range of vegetable oils are available in the market but the choice of healthy cooking oil has been a controversial subject since ideas keep on changing as new evidence accumulates. One of the factors holding back the increased use of value-added healthy oils in India is that most potential consumers are genuinely not aware of their health benefits. Edible oil consumption is primarily a community-driven phenomenon in India. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the current scenario of edible oils in India, their composition, health benefits, food applications, stability issues and future aspects as buying the right oil for health has become of great importance.Journal of Oil & Fat Industries 02/2013; 91(2):179-206. DOI:10.1007/s11746-013-2400-3 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Palm oil (PO) may be an unhealthy fat because of its high saturated fatty acid content. The objective was to assess the effect of substituting PO for other primary dietary fats on blood lipid-related markers of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary intervention trials. Studies were eligible if they included original data comparing PO-rich diets with other fat-rich diets and analyzed at least one of the following CHD/CVD biomarkers: total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, TC/HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apolipoprotein A-I and B, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a). Fifty-one studies were included. Intervention times ranged from 2 to 16 wk, and different fat substitutions ranged from 4% to 43%. Comparison of PO diets with diets rich in stearic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) showed significantly higher TC, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I, whereas most of the same biomarkers were significantly lower when compared with diets rich in myristic/lauric acid. Comparison of PO-rich diets with diets rich in trans fatty acids showed significantly higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I and significantly lower apolipoprotein B, triacylglycerols, and TC/HDL cholesterol. Stratified and meta-regression analyses showed that the higher concentrations of TC and LDL cholesterol, when PO was substituted for MUFAs and PUFAs, were not significant in young people and in subjects with diets with a lower percentage of energy from fat. Both favorable and unfavorable changes in CHD/CVD risk markers occurred when PO was substituted for the primary dietary fats, whereas only favorable changes occurred when PO was substituted for trans fatty acids. Additional studies are needed to provide guidance for policymaking.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 04/2014; 99(6). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.081190 · 6.92 Impact Factor