Nursing research and treatment of tobacco dependence: state of the science.
ABSTRACT Tobacco use is considered to be the single most preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality among men and women. It is well documented that tobacco cessation reduces the burden of disease significantly and is cost effective. Efficacious therapy for tobacco dependence exists, and nurses have been shown to be effective tobacco cessation interventionists. Given the large number of nurses in the United States, nurses can influence national health objectives of reduced tobacco use significantly and help to decrease the number of adults at risk for tobacco-attributable disease and death. The objectives of this presentation are to (a) describe the scientific evidence for tobacco cessation interventions, based on the U.S. clinical practice guideline Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence; (b) present the meta-analytic findings of the efficacy of nursing interventions for smoking cessation; (c) discuss barriers to nursing research and tobacco interventions; and (d) provide future directions for nursing intervention research.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to train and test support vector machines (SVM) and self-organizing maps (SOM) to correctly classify gait patterns before, during and after complete leg exhaustion by isokinetic leg exercises. Ground reaction forces were derived for 18 gait cycles on 9 adult participants. Immediately before the trials 7-12, participants were required to completely exhaust their calves with the aid of additional weights (44.4±8.8kg). Data were analyzed using: (a) the time courses directly and (b) only the deviations from each individual's calculated average gait pattern. On an inter-individual level the person recognition of the gait patterns was 100% realizable. Fatigue recognition was also highly probable at 98.1%. Additionally, applied SOMs allowed an alternative visualization of the development of fatigue in the gait patterns over the progressive fatiguing exercise regimen.Human movement science 12/2010; 30(5):966-75. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (Fiore et al., 2008) clinical guidelines on smoking cessation identified seven medications as first-line drugs which have been shown to promote long-term smoking cessation efforts. These pharmacological agents include five types of nicotine replacement therapies and two specific drugs, Buproprion SR and Varenicline. Key issues that health care professionals should address when caring for individuals who are dependent on tobacco are discussed. Barriers, such as the attitudes and knowledge of the persons who smoke and health care professionals, that impede individuals’ use of medications within their plan of smoking cessation are addressed. Special attention is given to the increase in suicide potential during the process of quitting. The need for nurses and other health care professionals to pursue research to identify the most effective ways of educating themselves to promote smoking cessation with males and females from adolescence through old age, including those with mental health and addiction disorders, is emphasized.Journal of Addictions Nursing 06/2010; 21(2-3):87-97. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article describes knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practices regarding treatment of tobacco use and dependence reported by nurse practitioners (NPs) interested in learning about evidence-based practices. Researchers analyzed baseline data from 193 licensed NPs prior to participating in Providers Practice Prevention: Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Results revealed domains where participants practiced in accordance with clinical practice guidelines and some areas where additional education and support may be necessary. NPs have a tremendous opportunity to reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality by addressing tobacco use, making it vitally important to support their implementation of evidence-based strategies.The Journal for Nurse Practitioners 03/2010; 6(3):212-219.