P2Y2 receptor up-regulation induced by guanosine or UTP in rat brain cultured astrocytes.
ABSTRACT Among P2 metabotropic ATP receptors, P2Y2 subtype seems to be peculiar as its upregulation triggers important biological events in different cells types. In non-stimulated cells including astrocytes, P2Y2 receptors are usually expressed at levels lower than P2Y1 sites, however the promoter region of the P2Y2 receptors has not yet been studied and little is known about the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the expression of this ATP receptor. We showed that not only UTP and ATP are the most potent and naturally occurring agonist for P2Y2 sites, but also guanosine induced an up-regulation of astrocyte P2Y2 receptor mRNA evaluated by Northern blot analysis. We also focused our attention on this nucleoside since in our previous studies it was reported to be released by cultured astrocytes and to exert different neuroprotective effects. UTP and guanosine-evoked P2Y2 receptor up-regulation in rat brain cultured astrocytes was linked to an increased P2Y2-mediated intracellular calcium response, thus suggesting an increased P2Y2 activity. Actinomycin D, a RNA polymerase inhibitor, abrogated both UTP and guanosine-mediated P2Y2 up-regulation, thus indicating that de novo transcription was required. The effect of UTP and guanosine was also evaluated in astrocytes pretreated with different inhibitors of signal transduction pathways including ERK, PKC and PKA reported to be involved in the regulation of other cell surface receptor mRNAs. The results show that ERK1-2/MAPK pathway play a key role in the P2Y2 receptor up-regulation mediated by either UTP or guanosine. Moreover, our data suggest that PKA is also involved in guanosine-induced transcriptional activation of P2Y2 mRNA and that increased intracellular calcium levels and PKC activation may also mediate P2Y2 receptor up-regulation triggered by UTP. The extracellular release of ATP under physiological and pathological conditions has been widely studied. On the contrary, little is known about the release of pyrimidines and in particular of UTP. Here we show that astrocytes are able to release UTP, either at rest or during and following hypoxia/hypoglycemia obtained by submitting the cells to glucose-oxygen deprivation (OGD). Interestingly, also P2Y2 receptor mRNA increased by about two-fold the control values when the cultures were submitted to OGD. It has been recently reported that P2Y2 receptors can play a protective role in astrocytes, thus either guanosine administration or increased extracellular concentrations of guanosine and UTP reached locally following CNS injury may increase P2Y2-mediated biological events aimed at promoting a protective astrocyte response.
Article: Purinoceptors on Neuroglia.Molecular Neurobiology 05/2009; · 5.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute inflammation is important for tissue repair; however, chronic inflammation contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and occurs when glial cells undergo prolonged activation. In the brain, stress or damage causes the release of nucleotides and activation of the G(q) protein-coupled P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor subtype (P2Y(2)R) leading to pro-inflammatory responses that can protect neurons from injury, including the stimulation and recruitment of glial cells. P2Y(2)R activation induces the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a response dependent upon the presence of a SH3 binding domain in the intracellular C terminus of the P2Y(2)R that promotes Src binding and transactivation of EGFR, a pathway that regulates the proliferation of cortical astrocytes. Other studies indicate that P2Y(2)R activation increases astrocyte migration. P2Y(2)R activation by UTP increases the expression in astrocytes of alpha(V)beta(3/5) integrins that bind directly to the P2Y(2)R via an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the first extracellular loop of the P2Y(2)R, an interaction required for G(o) and G(12) protein-dependent astrocyte migration. In rat primary cortical neurons (rPCNs) P2Y(2)R expression is increased by stimulation with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose levels are elevated in AD, in part due to nucleotide-stimulated release from glial cells. Other results indicate that oligomeric beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta(1-42)), a contributor to AD, increases nucleotide release from astrocytes, which would serve to activate upregulated P2Y(2)Rs in neurons. Data with rPCNs suggest that P2Y(2)R upregulation by IL-1beta and subsequent activation by UTP are neuroprotective, since this increases the non-amyloidogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein. Furthermore, activation of IL-1beta-upregulated P2Y(2)Rs in rPCNs increases the phosphorylation of cofilin, a cytoskeletal protein that stabilizes neurite outgrowths. Thus, activation of pro-inflammatory P2Y(2)Rs in glial cells can promote neuroprotective responses, suggesting that P2Y(2)Rs represent a novel pharmacological target in neurodegenerative and other pro-inflammatory diseases.Molecular Neurobiology 04/2010; 41(2-3):356-66. · 5.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are fundamental for central nervous system (CNS) physiology and are the fulcrum of neurological diseases. Astroglial cells control development of the nervous system, regulate synaptogenesis, maturation, maintenance and plasticity of synapses and are central for nervous system homeostasis. Astroglial reactions determine progression and outcome of many neuropathologies and are critical for regeneration and remodelling of neural circuits following trauma, stroke, ischaemia or neurodegenerative disorders. They secrete multiple neurotransmitters and neurohormones to communicate with neurones, microglia and the vascular walls of capillaries. Signalling through release of ATP is the most widespread mean of communication between astrocytes and other types of neural cells. ATP serves as a fast excitatory neurotransmitter and has pronounced long-term (trophic) roles in cell proliferation, growth, and development. During pathology, ATP is released from damaged cells and acts both as a cytotoxic factor and a proinflammatory mediator, being a universal "danger" signal. In this review, we summarise contemporary knowledge on the role of purinergic receptors (P2Rs) in a variety of diseases in relation to changes of astrocytic functions and nucleotide signalling. We have focussed on the role of the ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2YRs working alone or in concert to modify the release of neurotransmitters, to activate signalling cascades and to change the expression levels of ion channels and protein kinases. All these effects are of great importance for the initiation, progression and maintenance of astrogliosis-the conserved and ubiquitous glial defensive reaction to CNS pathologies. We highlighted specific aspects of reactive astrogliosis, especially with respect to the involvement of the P2X(7) and P2Y(1)R subtypes. Reactive astrogliosis exerts both beneficial and detrimental effects in a context-specific manner determined by distinct molecular signalling cascades. Understanding the role of purinergic signalling in astrocytes is critical to identifying new therapeutic principles to treat acute and chronic neurological diseases.Purinergic Signalling 05/2012; 8(3):629-57. · 3.16 Impact Factor