Is the association between balanitis xerotica obliterans and penile carcinoma underestimated?
ABSTRACT To determine the incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) in a consecutive series of penile carcinomas in one centre, as BXO is a common penile disease that usually involves the prepuce and glans, and there have been sporadic case reports of the association between BXO and penile carcinoma, although it is uncertain if there is a specific causal relationship.
The reported incidence of penile carcinoma in patients with BXO is 2.6-5.8%, leading some to advocate circumcision in all cases, with close follow-up in those with persistent glanular disease. We prospectively analysed all cases of penile cancer referred to the unit over a 54-month period, to determine the prevalence of BXO.
In all, 155 patients with penile malignancy were reviewed, 44 of whom had BXO (28%). This group included 34 men with squamous cell carcinoma and 10 with carcinoma in situ; in 39, BXO and malignancy presented synchronously. In three other cases, cancer occurred in the background of chronic persistent BXO; in two cases penile cancer was truly metachronous. The tumours with associated BXO tended to be of lower stage and grade, and the patients presented when younger, but this was not statistically significant.
A significant proportion of patients with penile malignancy have a histological diagnosis of BXO. We think that patients presenting with long-standing BXO and those in whom BXO has not resolved after circumcision warrant biopsies and a careful follow-up.
Article: In response to Waskett and MorrisJournal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 01/2008; 22(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2007.02500.x · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Summary Lead editor for IUSTI: Willem I. van der MeijdenBalanoposthitis can be caused by a disparate range of conditions affecting the penile skin. This guideline concentrates on a selected group of conditions and offers recommendations on the diagnostic tests and treatment regimes needed for the effective management of balanoposthitis.International Journal of STD & AIDS 05/2014; 25(9). DOI:10.1177/0956462414533099 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We reviewed the current literature on lichen sclerosus as it related to urethral stricture disease using MEDLINE and PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) up to the current time. We identified 65 reports, 40 of which were considered relevant and form the basis of this review. Lichen sclerosus is now the accepted term, and balanitis xerotica obliterans is no longer acceptable. This common chronic inflammatory skin condition, mainly affecting the genitalia, remains an enigma, with uncertain etiology, varied presentation, and multiple treatments. In the early stages of the condition, a short course of steroids may be beneficial for some patients. If persistent, patients need long-term surveillance because of the potential development of squamous cell carcinoma. If diagnosed early, lichen sclerosus can be controlled, preventing progression. But once the disease has progressed, it is very difficult to treat. Surgical treatment by circumcision can be curative if the disease is treated early when still localized. Once progression to urethral involvement has occurred, treatment is much more difficult. Meatal stenosis alone is likely to require meatotomy or meatoplasty. Treatment of the involved urethra requires urethroplasty. Single-stage and multiple-stage procedures using oral mucosa have both been reported to give acceptable results, but the use of skin, genital or nongenital, is not recommended, because being skin, it remains prone to lichen sclerosus. With extensive disease, affecting the full length of the urethra, consideration should be given to perineal urethrostomy. A significant number of patients may prefer this simpler option.Urology 03/2014; 83(3):S27–S30. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2013.09.013 · 2.13 Impact Factor