Early onset severe and late-onset mild Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with mitofusin 2 (MFN2) mutations.
ABSTRACT Mutations in the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene, which encodes a mitochondrial GTPase mitofusin protein, have recently been reported to cause both Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2A (CMT2A) and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy VI (HMSN VI). It is well known that HMSN VI is an axonal CMT neuropathy with optic atrophy. However, the differences between CMT2A and HMSN VI with MFN2 mutations remained to be clarified. Therefore, we studied the phenotypic characteristics of CMT patients with MFN2 mutations. Mutations in MFN2 were screened in 62 unrelated axonal CMT neuropathy families. We calculated CMT neuropathy scores (CMTNSs) and functional disability scales (FDSs) to quantify disease severity. Twenty-one patients with the MFN2 mutations were studied by brain MRI. Ten pathogenic mutations were identified in 26 patients from 15 families (24.2%). Six of these mutations had not been reported, and de novo mutations were observed in five families (33.3%). The electrophysiological patterns of affected individuals with the MFN2 mutations were typical of axonal CMT; however, the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics were markedly different in early (<10 years) and late disease-onset (> or =10 years) groups. All patients with an early onset had severe CMTNS (> or =21) and FDS (6 or 7), whereas most patients with late onset had mild CMTNS (< or =10) and FDS (< or =3). We identified two HMSN VI families with the R364W mutation in the early onset group; however, two other families with the same mutation did not have optic atrophy. In addition, two early onset families with R94W mutations, previously reported for HMSN VI, did not have visual impairment. Interestingly, eight patients had periventricular and subcortical hyperintense lesions by brain MRI. In the late-onset group, three patients had sensorineural hearing loss and two had bilateral extensor plantar responses. We found that MFN2 mutations are the major cause of axonal CMT neuropathy, and that they are associated with variable CNS involvements. Phenotypes were significantly different in the early and late disease-onset groups. Our findings suggest that HMSN VI might be a variant of the early onset severe CMT2A phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are involved in ATP supply to cells through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), synthesis of key molecules and response to oxidative stress, as well as in apoptosis. They contain many redox enzymes and naturally occurring inefficiencies of oxidative phosphorylation generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). CNS functions depend heavily on efficient mitochondrial function, since brain tissue has a high energy demand. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), generation and presence of ROS and environmental factors may contribute to energy failure and lead to neurodegenerative diseases. Many rare metabolic disorders have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. More than 300 pathogenic mtDNA mutations involve proteins that regulate OXPHOS and mitochondrial structural integrity, and have also been described in neurodegenerative diseases with autosomal inheritance. Mitochondria may have an important role in ageing-related neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In primary mitochondrial and neurodegenerative disorders, there is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs early and has a primary role in pathogenesis. In the present review, we discuss several mitochondrial diseases as models of neurodegeneration.Journal of the neurological sciences 06/2012; 322(1-2):254-62. · 2.32 Impact Factor
Article: Comparison between clinical disabilities and electrophysiological values in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A patients with PMP22 duplication.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 1A (CMT1A) is the demyelinating form of CMT that is significantly associated with PMP22 duplication. Some studies have found that the disease-related disabilities of these patients are correlated with their compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), while others have suggested that they are related to the nerve conduction velocities. In the present study, we investigated the correlations between the disease-related disabilities and the electrophysiological values in a large cohort of Korean CMT1A patients. We analyzed 167 CMT1A patients of Korean origin with PMP22 duplication using clinical and electrophysiological assessments, including the CMT neuropathy score and the functional disability scale. Clinical motor disabilities were significantly correlated with the CMAPs but not the motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCVs). Moreover, the observed sensory impairments matched the corresponding reductions in the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) but not with slowing of the sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs). In addition, CMAPs were strongly correlated with the disease duration but not with the age at onset. The terminal latency index did not differ between CMT1A patients and healthy controls. In CMT1A patients, disease-related disabilities such as muscle wasting and sensory impairment were strongly correlated with CMAPs and SNAPs but not with the MNCVs or SNCVs. Therefore, we suggest that the clinical disabilities of CMT patients are determined by the extent of axonal dysfunction.Journal of Clinical Neurology 06/2012; 8(2):139-45. · 1.69 Impact Factor
Article: The mutational spectrum in a cohort of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 among the Han Chinese in Taiwan.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited axonal neuropathies. The aim of this study was to extensively investigate the mutational spectrum of CMT2 in a cohort of patients of Han Chinese. Genomic DNA from 36 unrelated Taiwanese CMT2 patients of Han Chinese descent was screened for mutations in the coding regions of the MFN2, RAB7, TRPV4, GARS, NEFL, HSPB1, MPZ, GDAP1, HSPB8, DNM2, AARS and YARS genes. Ten disparate mutations were identified in 14 patients (38.9% of the cohort), including p.N71Y in AARS (2.8%), p.T164A in HSPB1 (2.8%), and p.[H256R]+[R282H] in GDAP1 (2.8%) in one patient each, three NEFL mutations in six patients (16.7%) and four MFN2 mutations in five patients (13.9%). The following six mutations were novel: the individual AARS, HSPB1 and GDAP1 mutations and c.475-1G>T, p.L233V and p.E744M mutations in MFN2. An in vitro splicing assay revealed that the MFN2 c.475-1G>T mutation causes a 4 amino acid deletion (p.T159_Q162del). Despite an extensive survey, the genetic causes of CMT2 remained elusive in the remaining 22 CMT2 patients (61.1%). This study illustrates the spectrum of CMT2 mutations in a Taiwanese CMT2 cohort and expands the number of CMT2-associated mutations. The relevance of the AARS and HSPB1 mutations in the pathogenesis of CMT2 is further highlighted. Moreover, the frequency of the NEFL mutations in this study cohort was unexpectedly high. Genetic testing for NEFL and MFN2 mutations should, therefore, be the first step in the molecular diagnosis of CMT2 in ethnic Chinese.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e29393. · 4.09 Impact Factor