The sialotranscriptome of adult male Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.
ABSTRACT Adult mosquitoes feed on sugary meals to obtain energy for flight and other activities, while anautogenous females take a blood meal to develop eggs. Accordingly, female but not male salivary glands possess several antihemostatic components to facilitate acquisition of blood, while both sexes have activities related to digestion of the sugar meal as well as antimicrobials to maintain meal integrity. Studies on adult female sialotranscriptomes indicated a set of approximately 70 proteins and peptides possibly secreted in saliva that presumably facilitate sugar and blood meals. Most of these proteins have no known function, so no assignment to blood or sugar feeding is possible. Microarray and RT-PCR studies attempted to identify sex specificity of these transcripts. Our present study complements the previous data set, comparing approximately 1000 randomly sequenced clones of a male adult salivary gland cDNA library with the female set. Statistically significant differences were found in 16 transcripts found exclusively in the female library, 4 transcripts significantly female enriched but also found in male glands, and 6 transcripts enriched in male glands. We additionally found a transcript in male salivary glands with a trypsin inhibitor-like (TIL) domain that we presume codes for an antimicrobial peptide; a novel defensin transcript was also found in the male sialotranscriptome. Supplemental tables can be found at.
- Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis - STUD SURF SCI CATAL. 01/2007; 165:69-72.
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ABSTRACT: Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they transmit.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94447. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- Anopheles mosquitoes - New insights into malaria vectors, Edited by Sylvie Manguin, 07/2013: chapter New Salivary Biomarkers of Human Exposure to Malaria Vector Bites; Intech.