The sialotranscriptome of adult male Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.
ABSTRACT Adult mosquitoes feed on sugary meals to obtain energy for flight and other activities, while anautogenous females take a blood meal to develop eggs. Accordingly, female but not male salivary glands possess several antihemostatic components to facilitate acquisition of blood, while both sexes have activities related to digestion of the sugar meal as well as antimicrobials to maintain meal integrity. Studies on adult female sialotranscriptomes indicated a set of approximately 70 proteins and peptides possibly secreted in saliva that presumably facilitate sugar and blood meals. Most of these proteins have no known function, so no assignment to blood or sugar feeding is possible. Microarray and RT-PCR studies attempted to identify sex specificity of these transcripts. Our present study complements the previous data set, comparing approximately 1000 randomly sequenced clones of a male adult salivary gland cDNA library with the female set. Statistically significant differences were found in 16 transcripts found exclusively in the female library, 4 transcripts significantly female enriched but also found in male glands, and 6 transcripts enriched in male glands. We additionally found a transcript in male salivary glands with a trypsin inhibitor-like (TIL) domain that we presume codes for an antimicrobial peptide; a novel defensin transcript was also found in the male sialotranscriptome. Supplemental tables can be found at.
Article: Differential expression of salivary proteins between susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes of Culex quinquefasciatus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito, a major pest and vector of filariasis and arboviruses in the tropics, has developed multiple resistance mechanisms to the main insecticide classes currently available in public health. Among them, the insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1(R) allele) is widespread worldwide and confers cross-resistance to organophosphates and carbamates. Fortunately, in an insecticide-free environment, this mutation is associated with a severe genetic cost that can affect various life history traits. Salivary proteins are directly involved in human-vector contact during biting and therefore play a key role in pathogen transmission. An original proteomic approach combining 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was adopted to compare the salivary expression profiles of two strains of C. quinquefasciatus with the same genetic background but carrying either the ace-1(R) resistance allele or not (wild type). Four salivary proteins were differentially expressed (>2 fold, P<0.05) in susceptible (SLAB) and resistant (SR) mosquito strains. Protein identification indicated that the D7 long form, a major salivary protein involved in blood feeding success, presented lower expression in the resistant strain than the susceptible strain. In contrast, three other proteins, including metabolic enzymes (endoplasmin, triosephosphate isomerase) were significantly over-expressed in the salivary gland of ace-1(R) resistant mosquitoes. A catalogue of 67 salivary proteins of C. quinquefasciatus sialotranscriptome was also identified and described. The "resistance"-dependent expression of salivary proteins in mosquitoes may have considerable impact on biting behaviour and hence on the capacity to transmit parasites/viruses to humans. The behaviour of susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes in the presence of vertebrate hosts and its impact on pathogen transmission urgently requires further investigation. DATA DEPOSITION: All proteomic data will be deposited at PRIDE (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/).PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(3):e17496. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: A comprehensive gene expression atlas of sex- and tissue-specificity in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is the primary vector of human malaria, a disease responsible for millions of deaths each year. To improve strategies for controlling transmission of the causative parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, we require a thorough understanding of the developmental mechanisms, physiological processes and evolutionary pressures affecting life-history traits in the mosquito. Identifying genes expressed in particular tissues or involved in specific biological processes is an essential part of this process. In this study, we present transcription profiles for ~82% of annotated Anopheles genes in dissected adult male and female tissues. The sensitivity afforded by examining dissected tissues found gene activity in an additional 20% of the genome that is undetected when using whole-animal samples. The somatic and reproductive tissues we examined each displayed patterns of sexually dimorphic and tissue-specific expression. By comparing expression profiles with Drosophila melanogaster we also assessed which genes are well conserved within the Diptera versus those that are more recently evolved. Our expression atlas and associated publicly available database, the MozAtlas (http://www.tissue-atlas.org), provides information on the relative strength and specificity of gene expression in several somatic and reproductive tissues, isolated from a single strain grown under uniform conditions. The data will serve as a reference for other mosquito researchers by providing a simple method for identifying where genes are expressed in the adult, however, in addition our resource will also provide insights into the evolutionary diversity associated with gene expression levels among species.BMC Genomics 06/2011; 12:296. · 4.07 Impact Factor
Article: Differential Expression of Salivary Gland Genes in the Female Sand Fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae)[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Saliva from blood-sucking arthropods modulates host homostasis and immunity, making salivary components potential candidates to be used against pathogens transmitted by these biting insects. Functional characterization of salivary molecules is fundamental to gain a better understanding into their roles during blood feeding and to determine under which conditions such molecules are expressed in the insect saliva. In the current study, we investigated the expression profile of 10 salivary genes from the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) (Diptera: Psychodidae), a principal vector of Leishmania major. Our analyses using quantitative polymerase chain reaction were aimed at defining whether diet or senescence influences the expression of P. papatasi salivary gland-expressed genes in laboratory-reared female sand flies. Our results demonstrate that at least one of the most abundant salivary transcripts, SP44, is consistently modulated by either senescence or diet. In contrast, another abundant transcript, SP32, was expressed without any influence from the diet received or the age of the sand fly. Differential expression of the other eight transcripts was not consistently regulated by either diet or age, suggesting that other factors may have a greater influence on differential expression of these salivary gland proteins.Journal of Medical Entomology 11/2010; · 1.76 Impact Factor