Electrical forces for microscale cell manipulation. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 8:425-454

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering (Impact Factor: 12.45). 02/2006; 8(1):425-54. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.bioeng.8.061505.095739
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Electrical forces for manipulating cells at the microscale include electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis. Electrophoretic forces arise from the interaction of a cell's charge and an electric field, whereas dielectrophoresis arises from a cell's polarizability. Both forces can be used to create microsystems that separate cell mixtures into its component cell types or act as electrical "handles" to transport cells or place them in specific locations. This review explores the use of these two forces for microscale cell manipulation. We first examine the forces and electrodes used to create them, then address potential impacts on cell health, followed by examples of devices for both separating cells and handling them.

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    • "The current methods commonly used for manipulation of cells employ a variety of mechanical forces originated from centrifugal, hydrodynamic, ultrasonic, optical, electric and magnetic force fields [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Among these methods, manipulation using AC-induced dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces may be the most "
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    ABSTRACT: Cell manipulation and separation technologies have potential biological and medical applications, including advanced clinical protocols such as tissue engineering. An aggregation model was developed for a human carcinoma (HeLa) cell suspension exposed to a uniform AC electric field, in order to explore the field-induced structure formation and kinetics of cell aggregates. The momentum equations of cells under the action of the dipole-dipole interaction were solved theoretically and the total time required to form linear string-like cluster was derived. The results were compared with those of a numerical simulation. Experiments using HeLa cells were also performed for comparison. The total time required to form linear string-like clusters was derived from a simple theoretical model of the cell cluster kinetics. The growth rates of the average string length of cell aggregates showed good agreement with those of the numerical simulation. In the experiment, cells were found to form massive clusters on the bottom of a chamber. The results imply that the string-like cluster grows rapidly by longitudinal attraction when the electric field is first applied and that this process slows at later times and is replaced by lateral coagulation of short strings. The findings presented here are expected to enable design of methods for the organization of three-dimensional (3D) cellular structures without the use of micro-fabricated substrates, such as 3D biopolymer scaffolds, to manipulate cells into spatial arrangement.
    Biorheology 03/2015; 51(6). DOI:10.3233/BIR-14034
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    • "Dielectric properties of a bio-particle depend on the morphology and chemical composition of the internal matrix of the bio-particle. Therefore, each bio-particle has its own dielectric signature [41]. This issue introduces a bio-particle specific selectivity; however, also introduces a challenge. "
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technology offers unique advantages for the next generation devices for diagnostic therapeutic applications. For chemical, biological and biomedical analysis in microfluidic systems, there are some fundamental operations such as separation, focusing, filtering, concentration, trapping, detection, sorting, counting, washing, lysis of bio-particles, and PCR-like reactions. The combi-nation of these operations led to the complete analysis systems for specific applications. Manipulation of the bio-particles is the key ingredient for these applications. Therefore, microfluidic bio-particle manip-ulation has attracted a significant attention from the academic community. Considering the size of the bio-particles and the throughput of the practical applications, manipulation of the bio-particles is a challenging problem. Different techniques are available for the manipulation of bio-particles in microfluidic systems. In this review, some of the techniques for the manipulation of bio-particles; namely hydrodynamic based, electrokinetic-based, acoustic-based, magnetic-based and optical-based methods have been discussed. The comparison of different techniques and the recent applications regarding the microfluidic bio-particle manipulation for different biotechnology applications are presented. Finally, challenges and the future research directions for microfluidic bio-particle manipulation are addressed.
    Biochemical Engineering Journal 11/2014; 92:63-82. DOI:10.1016/j.bej.2014.07.013
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    • "However, dielectrophoresis requests fine tuning of the applied electrical parameters, which may lead to trapping of multiple cells due to inappropriate control of the dielectrophoretic forces. In addition, the trapping method is not suitable for long-term cell culture due to potentially cytotoxic low-conductivity buffers and/or high temperatures induced by Joule heating [17]. As to passive methodologies for single-cell trapping, flowbased single-cell positioning has been developed, which can be divided into two categories. "
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    ABSTRACT: Microfluidic cell-based arraying technology is widely used in the field of single-cell analysis. However, among developed devices, there is a compromise between cellular loading efficiencies and trapped cell densities, which deserves further analysis and optimization. To address this issue, the cell trapping efficiency of a microfluidic device with two parallel micro channels interconnected with cellular trapping sites was studied in this paper. By regulating channel inlet and outlet status, the microfluidic trapping structure can mimic key functioning units of previously reported devices. Numerical simulations were used to model this cellular trapping structure, quantifying the effects of channel on/off status and trapping structure geometries on the cellular trapping efficiency. Furthermore, the microfluidic device was fabricated based on conventional microfabrication and the cellular trapping efficiency was quantified in experiments. Experimental results showed that, besides geometry parameters, cellular travelling velocities and sizes also affected the single-cell trapping efficiency. By fine tuning parameters, more than 95% of trapping sites were taken by individual cells. This study may lay foundation in further studies of single-cell positioning in microfluidics and push forward the study of single-cell analysis.
    The Scientific World Journal 05/2014; DOI:10.1155/2014/929163
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