When Fit Is Fundamental: Performance Evaluations and Promotions of Upper-Level Female and Male Managers

Department of Psychology, Baruch College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10010-5585, USA.
Journal of Applied Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.31). 08/2006; 91(4):777-85. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.777
Source: PubMed


Using archival organizational data, the authors examined relationships of gender and type of position (i.e., line or staff) to performance evaluations of 448 upper-level managers, and relationships of performance evaluations to promotions during the subsequent 2 years. Consistent with the idea that there is a greater perceived lack of fit between stereotypical attributes of women and requirements of line jobs than staff jobs, women in line jobs received lower performance ratings than women in staff jobs or men in either line or staff jobs. Moreover, promoted women had received higher performance ratings than promoted men and performance ratings were more strongly related to promotions for women than men, suggesting that women were held to stricter standards for promotion.

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    • "Yet, it is also important to consider the type of job for which applicants are being evaluated. The role of lack of fit perceptions in the assessment of male and female job applicants may be based on the sex-typing of the job (Lyness & Heilman, 2006). Jobs are considered to be sex-typed as male or female based on the sex composition of typical job-holders (Cejka & Eagly, 1999; Krefting, Berger, & Wallace, 1978). "

    The International Journal of Human Resource Management 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/09585192.2015.1053963 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Caucasian and Hispanic applicants both benefited from a high-quality resume, but African American applicants were evaluated negatively even with strong credentials (King, Madera, Hebl, Knight, & Mendoza, 2006). Central to understanding how ethnic and gender stereotypes can influence judgments of professors is the stereotyping of occupations based on (a) job responsibilities believed to be linked to ethnicity and gender or (b) the ethnicity and gender of the usual job-holder (Heilman, Block, & Martell, 1995; Lyness & Heilman, 2006). "
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    • "This encompasses, for example, studies on discrimination effects in workplace environments. Up till now, such research has looked into attitude effects toward persons or groups based on race (Toosi et al., 2012), gender (Elkins, Phillips, & Konopaske, 2002), and age (Wood, Wilkinson, & Harcourt, 2008) influencing hiring (Agerström & Rooth, 2011), salary negotiation (Jarell & Stanley, 2004), and promotion (Lyness & Heilman, 2006). Here, introducing NIH as an attitude-based effect toward knowledge into the discrimination literature might stimulate and broaden the debate on discrimination in the workplace, especially with regard to inventive activities. "
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    ABSTRACT: The not-invented-here syndrome (NIH) describes a negative attitude toward knowledge (ideas, technologies) derived from an external source. Even though it is one of the most cited constructs in the literature on knowledge transfer, previous research has not provided a clear understanding of the antecedents, underlying attitudes, and behavioral consequences of NIH. The objective of our paper is to open the black box of NIH by providing an in-depth analysis of this frequently mentioned yet rarely understood phenomenon. Building on recent research in psychology and an extensive review of the management literature on NIH, we first develop a framework of different sources classifying knowledge as “external.” We then discuss how a perception as “external” may trigger the rejection of this knowledge, even if it is useful for the organization. Differentiating various functions of an attitude, we hereby identify possible trajectories linking NIH with such biased individual behavior and decision making. We apply this understanding to develop an extensive agenda for future research.
    Academy of Management Executive 05/2015; 29(2):193-217. DOI:10.5465/amp.2013.0091 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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