In-vitro effects of polyphenols from cocoa and beta-sitosterol on the growth of human prostate cancer and normal cells.

BIOAlternatives, Gençay, France.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention (Impact Factor: 3.03). 09/2006; 15(4):353-61.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cocoa contains many different types of physiologically active components. It was shown that cocoa beans are rich in specific antioxidants such as flavonoids, catechins, epicatechins and proanthocyanidins. Additionally, beta-sitosterol, the most common phytosterol, may play a protective role in the development of cancer. The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of different cocoa polyphenols extracts, alone or combined with beta-sitosterol, on two human prostate cancer cell lines (nonmetastatic 22Rv1 cells and metastatic DU145 cells) and a normal human prostate cell line (RWEP-1). A synergy between beta-sitosterol and cocoa polyphenols extract was also researched. Cells were treated independently with five products from 1 to 72 h: (1/) synthetic beta-sitosterol, (2/) a cocoa polyphenols extract supplemented with beta-sitosterol, (3/) three different cocoa polyphenols extracts naturally containing beta-sitosterol. In the experiment, beta-sitosterol was tested from 10(-6) to 10(-3)%; cocoa polyphenols extract supplementation was with 0.72% beta-sitosterol; finally cocoa polyphenols extracts were added to the cells at very low concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.2%. The growth and viability of cells were measured using colorimetric assay at 1, 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. IC50 and IC100 corresponding to the concentration leading to a decrease of 50% and 100% of cell growth were determined. At the highest tested concentration, cocoa polyphenols extracts induced a complete inhibition of growth of metastatic and nonmetastatic cancer cell lines. In addition, cocoa polyphenols extracts were more active against local cancer cells than against metastatic cells. Moreover, at the highest tested concentration, cocoa polyphenols extracts are not effective on a normal prostate cell lines. Beta-sitosterol induced low growth inhibition of both cancer cell line. Cocoa polyphenols extracts, however, were significantly more active and showed a strong and fast inhibition of cell growth than beta-sitosterol alone. No synergy or addition was observed when beta-sitosterol was tested together with the cocoa polyphenols extract. Our results show that cocoa polyphenols extracts have an antiproliferative effect on prostate cancer cell growth but not on normal cells, at the highest tested concentration.

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    • "The main and active component is the β-sitosterol, with a chemical structure similar to that of cholesterol, which is also commonly found in legumes and vegetables and in particular in plants like Hypoxis, Pygeum or other genus. In vitro experiments have shown the effectiveness of β-sitosterol in inhibiting prostate cell proliferation [91] [92]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common urological diseases in aging men. Because of its long latency, BPH is a good target for prevention. The aim of the study has been to review the various options of treatment, currently available, in the field of phytotherapy. Watchful waiting, pharmacological therapy, and surgery are also helpful, depending on the severity of the disease. Although drug therapy (alpha1-blockers, 5alpha-reductase inhibitors) and surgery (prostatectomy, transurethral resection, etc.) seem to be the most effective for patients with moderate-severe BPH, herbal medicines (i.e., Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica) are also commonly used in patients with mild-moderate symptoms. On the basis of preclinical studies several mechanisms of action have been postulated, including 5alpha-reductase inhibition, alpha-adrenergic antagonism, dihydrotestoterone and estrogen receptors inhibition. Randomized clinical trials indicate significant efficacy in improving urinary symptoms and mild adverse effects for some of phytotherapeutic agents, while further clinical evidence is needed for others (e.g., Epilobium Spp., Secale cereale, Roystonea regia). Healthcare professionals should be constantly informed about BPH phytotherapy, taking into account the risks/benefits profile of the use of medicinal plants in the management of BPH. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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    • "It has been reported that caffeine also induces cell cycle arrest through the protein kinase A/glycogen synthase kinase 3β pathway in human glioma cells (Ku et al., 2010). Flavonoids and caffeine in cocoa may have an antiproliferative effect on human cancer cell growth (Jourdain et al., 2006; Okano et al., 2008). Angiogenesis plays an important role in cancer growth and metastasis formation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent reports on cocoa are appealing in that a food commonly consumed for pure pleasure might also bring tangible benefits for human health. Cocoa consumption is correlated with reduced health risks of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer, and the health-promoting effects of cocoa are mediated by cocoa-driven phytochemicals. Cocoa is rich in procyanidins, theobromine, (-)-epicatechin, catechins, and caffeine. Among the phytochemicals present in consumed cocoa, theobromine is most available in human plasma, followed by caffeine, (-)-epicatechin, catechin, and procyanidins. It has been reported that cocoa phytochemicals specifically modulate or interact with specific molecular targets linked to the pathogenesis of chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, diabetes, and skin aging. This review summarizes comprehensive recent findings on the beneficial actions of cocoa-driven phytochemicals in molecular mechanisms of human health.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 02/2014; 54(11):1458-72. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.641041 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Cocoa and chocolate products are in fact rich in flavan-3- ol polyphenols, also known as flavanols, which possess antioxidant activity and have been reported to exert a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases, cancer and inflammatory processes in the human body (Engler et al. 2004; Heiss et al. 2005; Serafini et al. 2003; Jourdain et al. 2006; Corti et al. 2009; Cooper et al. 2008). Procyanidins, flavan-3-ols polymers, also play another important role in cocoa-derived products since they contribute to their taste and acceptability by affecting both bitterness and astringency (Komes et al. 2012; Sun-Waterhouse and Wadhwa 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This work was aimed to determine the effect of fermentation and drying on the content and profile of procyanidins (from monomers P1 to polymers P10) as well as on the antiradical and scavenging properties of cocoa beans. To this purpose, three experiments were carried out: a traditional fermentation process followed by air drying and two pilot-scale fermentation processes by either natural microbiota or starter followed by sun drying. Procyanidins were evaluated by HPLC analysis, while the total polyphenol index (TPI), the antiradical activity as well as the reducing power were determined by means of the reaction with the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, the decolorization assays of the ABTS radical (TEAC) and the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) methods, respectively. Both the traditional and pilot-scale processes resulted to affect the profile and content of the procyanidins fractions as well as the antiradical and reducing power functionality. Drying caused a severe reduction of compounds and thus resulted to be the critical step for the loss of procyanidins and monomers in particular. The indices of functionality generally showed a decreasing trend as a consequence of processing, and their evolution was similar to that observed in procyanidins content. To study the relationship between the individual procyanidins and the antioxidant activity expressed as TEAC, FRAP and TPI, the data set were processed by modified partial least squares regression. The obtained models presented a good predictive ability. Normalised regression coefficients showed that the relative contribution of each single class of compounds to total antioxidant activity resulted as follows: P1 > P2 > P3 > P4 > P6 > P8 > P5 > P7 > P9 >> P10.
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