In-vitro effects of polyphenols from cocoa and beta-sitosterol on the growth of human prostate cancer and normal cells.

BIOAlternatives, Gençay, France.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention (Impact Factor: 3.03). 09/2006; 15(4):353-61.
Source: PubMed


Cocoa contains many different types of physiologically active components. It was shown that cocoa beans are rich in specific antioxidants such as flavonoids, catechins, epicatechins and proanthocyanidins. Additionally, beta-sitosterol, the most common phytosterol, may play a protective role in the development of cancer. The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of different cocoa polyphenols extracts, alone or combined with beta-sitosterol, on two human prostate cancer cell lines (nonmetastatic 22Rv1 cells and metastatic DU145 cells) and a normal human prostate cell line (RWEP-1). A synergy between beta-sitosterol and cocoa polyphenols extract was also researched. Cells were treated independently with five products from 1 to 72 h: (1/) synthetic beta-sitosterol, (2/) a cocoa polyphenols extract supplemented with beta-sitosterol, (3/) three different cocoa polyphenols extracts naturally containing beta-sitosterol. In the experiment, beta-sitosterol was tested from 10(-6) to 10(-3)%; cocoa polyphenols extract supplementation was with 0.72% beta-sitosterol; finally cocoa polyphenols extracts were added to the cells at very low concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.2%. The growth and viability of cells were measured using colorimetric assay at 1, 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. IC50 and IC100 corresponding to the concentration leading to a decrease of 50% and 100% of cell growth were determined. At the highest tested concentration, cocoa polyphenols extracts induced a complete inhibition of growth of metastatic and nonmetastatic cancer cell lines. In addition, cocoa polyphenols extracts were more active against local cancer cells than against metastatic cells. Moreover, at the highest tested concentration, cocoa polyphenols extracts are not effective on a normal prostate cell lines. Beta-sitosterol induced low growth inhibition of both cancer cell line. Cocoa polyphenols extracts, however, were significantly more active and showed a strong and fast inhibition of cell growth than beta-sitosterol alone. No synergy or addition was observed when beta-sitosterol was tested together with the cocoa polyphenols extract. Our results show that cocoa polyphenols extracts have an antiproliferative effect on prostate cancer cell growth but not on normal cells, at the highest tested concentration.

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    • "The main and active component is the β-sitosterol, with a chemical structure similar to that of cholesterol, which is also commonly found in legumes and vegetables and in particular in plants like Hypoxis, Pygeum or other genus. In vitro experiments have shown the effectiveness of β-sitosterol in inhibiting prostate cell proliferation [91] [92]. "
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    • "It has been reported that caffeine also induces cell cycle arrest through the protein kinase A/glycogen synthase kinase 3β pathway in human glioma cells (Ku et al., 2010). Flavonoids and caffeine in cocoa may have an antiproliferative effect on human cancer cell growth (Jourdain et al., 2006; Okano et al., 2008). Angiogenesis plays an important role in cancer growth and metastasis formation. "
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    • "Cocoa and chocolate products are in fact rich in flavan-3- ol polyphenols, also known as flavanols, which possess antioxidant activity and have been reported to exert a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases, cancer and inflammatory processes in the human body (Engler et al. 2004; Heiss et al. 2005; Serafini et al. 2003; Jourdain et al. 2006; Corti et al. 2009; Cooper et al. 2008). Procyanidins, flavan-3-ols polymers, also play another important role in cocoa-derived products since they contribute to their taste and acceptability by affecting both bitterness and astringency (Komes et al. 2012; Sun-Waterhouse and Wadhwa 2012). "
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