Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K modulates angiotensinogen gene expression in kidney cells.
ABSTRACT The present studies aimed to identify the 70-kDa nuclear protein that binds to an insulin-responsive element in the rat angiotensinogen gene promoter and to define its action on angiotensinogen gene expression. Nuclear proteins were isolated from rat kidney proximal tubular cells and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. The 70-kDa nuclear protein was detected by Southwestern blotting and subsequently identified by mass spectrometry, which revealed that it was identical to 65-kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). hnRNP K bound to the insulin-responsive element of the rat angiotensinogen gene was revealed by a gel mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. hnRNP K inhibited angiotensinogen mRNA expression and promoter activity. In contrast, hnRNP K down-expression by small interference RNA enhanced angiotensinogen mRNA expression. Moreover, hnRNP K interacted with hnRNP F in pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Co-transfection of hnRNP K and hnRNP F further suppressed angiotensinogen mRNA expression. Finally, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that high glucose increases and insulin inhibits hnRNP K expression in rat kidney proximal tubular cells. In conclusion, our experiments revealed that hnRNP K is a nuclear protein that binds to the insulin-responsive element of the rat angiotensinogen gene promoter and modulates angiotensinogen gene transcription in the kidney.
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ABSTRACT: Regulated expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is due to changes in the rate of pre-mRNA splicing and not changes in its transcription. Starvation alters pre-mRNA splicing by decreasing the rate of intron removal, leading to intron retention and a decrease in the accumulation of mature mRNA. A regulatory element within exon 12 of G6PD pre-mRNA controls splicing efficiency. Starvation caused an increase in the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K protein and this increase coincided with the increase in the binding of hnRNP K to the regulatory element and a decrease in the expression of G6PD mRNA. HnRNP K bound to two C-rich motifs forming an ESS within exon 12. Overexpression of hnRNP K decreased the splicing and expression of G6PD mRNA, while siRNA-mediated depletion of hnRNP K caused an increase in the splicing and expression of G6PD mRNA. Binding of hnRNP K to the regulatory element was enhanced in vivo by starvation coinciding with a decrease in G6PD mRNA. HnRNP K binding to the C-rich motifs blocked binding of serine-arginine rich, splicing factor 3 (SRSF3), a splicing enhancer. Thus hnRNP K is a nutrient regulated splicing factor responsible for the inhibition of the splicing of G6PD during starvation.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins F and K (hnRNP F, hnRNP K) mediate insulin inhibition of renal Agt expression and prevention of hypertension and kidney injury in an Akita mouse model of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Adult male Akita mice (12 weeks old) were treated with insulin implants and killed at week 16. Untreated non-Akita littermates served as controls. The effects of insulin on blood glucose, systolic BP (SBP), renal proximal tubular cell (RPTC) gene expression and interstitial fibrosis were studied. We also examined immortalised rat RPTCs stably transfected with control plasmid or with plasmid containing rat Agt promoter in vitro. RESULTS: Insulin treatment normalised blood glucose levels and SBP, inhibited renal AGT expression but enhanced hnRNP F, hnRNP K and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 expression, attenuated renal hypertrophy and glomerular hyperfiltration and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, as well as AGT and angiotensin II levels, in Akita mice. In vitro, insulin inhibited Agt but stimulated Hnrnpf and Hnrnpk expression in high-glucose media via p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in RPTCs. Transfection with Hnrnpf or Hnrnpk small interfering RNAs prevented insulin inhibition of Agt expression in RPTCs. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data indicate that insulin prevents hypertension and attenuates kidney injury, at least in part, through suppressing renal Agt transcription via upregulation of hnRNP F and hnRNP K expression in diabetic Akita mice. HnRNP F and hnRNP K may be potential targets in the treatment of hypertension and kidney injury in diabetes.Diabetologia 04/2013; · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP) has been implicated in vertebrate craniofacial development and in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) human diseases by controlling cell proliferation and survival to mediate neural crest expansion. CNBP has been found to bind single-stranded nucleic acid and promote rearrangements of nucleic acid secondary structure in an ATP-independent manner, acting as a nucleic acid chaperone. A variety of methods were used, including cell viability assays, wound-scratch assays, chemotaxis assays, invasion assays, circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, chromatin immunoprecipitation, expression and purification of recombinant human CNBP, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses, Luciferase reporter assay, Western blotting, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Up-regulation of CNBP induced human fibrosarcoma cell death and suppressed fibrosarcoma cells motility and invasiveness. It was found that CNBP transcriptionally down-regulated expression of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) through its conversion of a G-rich sequence into G-quadruplex in the promoter of hnRNP K. G-Quadruplex stabilizing ligand tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (TMPyP4) could interact with and stabilize the G-quadruplex, resulting in downregulation of hnRNP K transcription. CNBP overexpression caused increase of cell death and suppression of cell metastasis through its induction of G-quadruplex formation in the promoter of hnRNP K resulting in hnRNP K down-regulation. The present result provided a new solution for controlling hnRNP K expression, which should shed light on new anticancer drug design and development.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 01/2014; · 3.85 Impact Factor