The present studies aimed to identify the 70-kDa nuclear protein that binds to an insulin-responsive element in the rat angiotensinogen gene promoter and to define its action on angiotensinogen gene expression. Nuclear proteins were isolated from rat kidney proximal tubular cells and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. The 70-kDa nuclear protein was detected by Southwestern blotting and subsequently identified by mass spectrometry, which revealed that it was identical to 65-kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). hnRNP K bound to the insulin-responsive element of the rat angiotensinogen gene was revealed by a gel mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. hnRNP K inhibited angiotensinogen mRNA expression and promoter activity. In contrast, hnRNP K down-expression by small interference RNA enhanced angiotensinogen mRNA expression. Moreover, hnRNP K interacted with hnRNP F in pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Co-transfection of hnRNP K and hnRNP F further suppressed angiotensinogen mRNA expression. Finally, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that high glucose increases and insulin inhibits hnRNP K expression in rat kidney proximal tubular cells. In conclusion, our experiments revealed that hnRNP K is a nuclear protein that binds to the insulin-responsive element of the rat angiotensinogen gene promoter and modulates angiotensinogen gene transcription in the kidney.
"hnRNP K is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells and plays a role in various cellular processes like chromatin remodelling, transcriptional regulation, splicing, translation or signal transduction (see, for example, , , , , , ). hnRNP K interacts directly or indirectly with a large number of cellular proteins , most notably with proteins involved in RNA metabolism. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) -encoded EBNA2 protein, which is essential for the in vitro transformation of B-lymphocytes, interferes with cellular processes by binding to proteins via conserved sequence motifs. Its Arginine-Glycine (RG) repeat element contains either symmetrically or asymmetrically di-methylated arginine residues (SDMA and ADMA, respectively). EBNA2 binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to the survival motor neurons protein (SMN) and via the ADMA-RG-repeat to the NP9 protein of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K (HML-2) Type 1). The hypothesis of this work was that the methylated RG-repeat mimics an epitope shared with cellular proteins that is used for interaction with target structures. With monoclonal antibodies against the modified RG-repeat, we indeed identified cellular homologues that apparently have the same surface structure as methylated EBNA2. With the SDMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the Sm protein D3 (SmD3) which, like EBNA2, binds via its SDMA-modified RG-repeat to SMN. With the ADMA-specific antibodies, we precipitated the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). Specific binding of the ADMA- antibody to hnRNP K was demonstrated using E. coli expressed/ADMA-methylated hnRNP K. In addition, we show that EBNA2 and hnRNP K form a complex in EBV- infected B-cells. Finally, hnRNP K, when co-expressed with EBNA2, strongly enhances viral latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) expression by an unknown mechanism as we did not detect a direct association of hnRNP K with DNA-bound EBNA2 in gel shift experiments. Our data support the notion that the methylated surface of EBNA2 mimics the surface structure of cellular proteins to interfere with or co-opt their functional properties.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42106. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042106 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"We have established that insulin inhibits high-glucose stimulation of Agt gene expression and RPTC hypertrophy (10,11) via a putative insulin-responsive element (IRE) in the rat Agt gene promoter that binds two nuclear proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) and hnRNP K (12–14). Overexpression of hnRNP F and/or hnRNP K inhibits Agt gene transcription in RPTCs in vitro (13,14). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the impact of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) overexpression on angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression, hypertension, and renal proximal tubular cell (RPTC) injury in high-glucose milieu both in vivo and in vitro. Diabetic Akita transgenic (Tg) mice specifically overexpressing hnRNP F in their RPTCs were created, and the effects on systemic hypertension, Agt gene expression, renal hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were studied. We also examined immortalized rat RPTCs stably transfected with control plasmid or plasmid containing hnRNP F cDNA in vitro. The results showed that hnRNP F overexpression attenuated systemic hypertension, suppressed Agt and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene expression, and reduced urinary Agt and angiotensin II levels, renal hypertrophy, and glomerulotubular fibrosis in Akita hnRNP F-Tg mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression prevented the high-glucose stimulation of Agt and TGF-β1 mRNA expression and cellular hypertrophy in RPTCs. These data suggest that hnRNP F plays a modulatory role and can ameliorate hypertension, renal hypertrophy, and interstitial fibrosis in diabetes. The underlying mechanism is mediated, at least in part, via the suppression of intrarenal Agt gene expression in vivo. hnRNP F may be a potential target in the treatment of hypertension and kidney injury in diabetes.
"hnRNP K, which was originally discovered as a component of hnRNP complexes, has been detected in multiple cellular organelles such as the nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria , as well as contains multiple modules that simultaneously engage proteins and nucleic acids and appear to facilitate molecular interactions    . A line of evidence indicates that hnRNP K, as a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression, including chromatin remodeling, transcription, splicing and translation processes       . Using differential proteomics, Moumen et al.  recently identify hnRNP K as being rapidly induced by DNA damage in a manner that requires the DNA-damage signaling kinases ATM or ATR. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (DeltaPKC-delta). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the DeltaPKC-delta, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that DeltaPKC-delta mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-delta inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-delta-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of DeltaPKC-delta in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of DeltaPKC-delta. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-delta down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.
Experimental Cell Research 09/2009; 315(19):3250-8. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2009.09.005 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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