Locus of control and sex offenders with an intellectual disability.
ABSTRACT Locus of control has been implicated as an important construct that is related to treatment outcome for several groups of offenders, including sexual offenders. However, little attention has been paid to how this construct is related to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities. Given this, 41 participants with intellectual disabilities were recruited into three groups: sex offenders who had undergone psychological treatment, sex offenders who had no history of treatment, and nonoffenders. All participants completed measures of locus of control and distorted cognitions. There was a significant difference between those who had and had not completed treatment in terms of cognitive distortions relating to sexual offending. There was no significant difference between the three groups on the measure of locus of control, with all three groups endorsing an external locus of control. Three possible explanations for how locus of control relates to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities is explored and discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose – This paper aims to provide a rationale for the development of a community-based group for men with intellectual disability who have been involved in sexually inappropriate behaviour but may not have been charged. Design/methodology/approach – The group was based on a cognitive behavioural model: group process and adaptations are briefly described. The group has been run on two occasions and preliminary data on outcome are provided. Findings – Participants show a reduction in attitudes consistent with offending, an increase in sexual knowledge, and a more external locus of control on completion of the group. One of the 12 men who attended was recorded as offending again within 18 months of group completion; however, three moved to less well supervised placements. Originality/value – It is concluded that this style of treatment has some advantages over other models and may be more effective, yet further research is required.British Journal of Forensic Practice 02/2012; 14(1):21-28.
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ABSTRACT: Eighty men, spread equally across 4 groups, were recruited, including men with and without intellectual disabilities. The men were either criminal offenders or nonoffenders. Participants completed measures of moral reasoning, empathy, and distorted cognitions. The results indicated that the moral reasoning abilities of offenders with intellectual disabilities were developmentally delayed but were still more mature than those of nonoffenders with intellectual disabilities. Offenders without intellectual disabilities had less mature moral reasoning abilities than nonoffenders without intellectual disabilities. The differences may be partially accounted for by intellectual ability. The results also indicated that the relationship between empathy and distorted cognitions was mediated by moral reasoning. The findings have implications for the use of psychological interventions with offenders with intellectual disabilities.American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 11/2011; 116(6):438-56. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Equipping Youth to Help One Another Programme (EQUIP) was designed for young offenders to address a developmental delay in moral reasoning, distorted cognitions and social skills. METHODS: The present authors undertook a single case series study and piloted an adapted version of the EQUIP programme with three men with intellectual disabilities and four men with a diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome, all of whom were detained in a medium-secure forensic unit for people with intellectual disabilities. Treatment was delivered over a 12-week period, and participants took part in four-one-hour sessions per week. RESULTS: The results suggested that treatment was successful at increasing moral reasoning ability, reducing distorted cognitions and improving ability to choose effective solutions to problems. However, treatment did not have a significant effect upon anger. CONCLUSIONS: The EQUIP programme is a promising treatment, but further research is needed to investigate its effectiveness with men with intellectual or other developmental disabilities.Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 12/2012; · 1.38 Impact Factor