Locus of Control and Sex Offenders With an Intellectual Disability

University of East Anglia Norwich, UK.
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology (Impact Factor: 0.84). 09/2006; 50(4):391-401. DOI: 10.1177/0306624X06287105
Source: PubMed


Locus of control has been implicated as an important construct that is related to treatment outcome for several groups of offenders, including sexual offenders. However, little attention has been paid to how this construct is related to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities. Given this, 41 participants with intellectual disabilities were recruited into three groups: sex offenders who had undergone psychological treatment, sex offenders who had no history of treatment, and nonoffenders. All participants completed measures of locus of control and distorted cognitions. There was a significant difference between those who had and had not completed treatment in terms of cognitive distortions relating to sexual offending. There was no significant difference between the three groups on the measure of locus of control, with all three groups endorsing an external locus of control. Three possible explanations for how locus of control relates to sexual offending by people with intellectual disabilities is explored and discussed.


Available from: Peter E Langdon, Oct 02, 2015
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    • "The change in locus of control, with men expressing a more external LOC on completion of the group, also replicates previous research (Langdon and Talbot, 2006; Rose et al., 2002). However, the significance of this change is called into question by the relatively small size of the changes recorded for most of the participants. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This paper aims to provide a rationale for the development of a community-based group for men with intellectual disability who have been involved in sexually inappropriate behaviour but may not have been charged. Design/methodology/approach – The group was based on a cognitive behavioural model: group process and adaptations are briefly described. The group has been run on two occasions and preliminary data on outcome are provided. Findings – Participants show a reduction in attitudes consistent with offending, an increase in sexual knowledge, and a more external locus of control on completion of the group. One of the 12 men who attended was recorded as offending again within 18 months of group completion; however, three moved to less well supervised placements. Originality/value – It is concluded that this style of treatment has some advantages over other models and may be more effective, yet further research is required.
    British Journal of Forensic Practice 02/2012; 14(1):21-28. DOI:10.1108/14636641211204432
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    • "Za adolescente sa poremećajem ponašanja karakterističan je spoljašnji lokus kontrole, dok je za njihovu braću bez poremećaja ponašanja karakterističan unutrašnji lokus kontrole. Ovo rezultat, koji je više puta ponovljen, karakterističan je ne samo za decu sa poremećajem ponašanja nego i za one koje karakteriše hiperkinetski poremećaj, zloupotreba supstanci, depresivni poremećaj, anksiozni poremećaj i suicidalnost (Langdon & Talbot, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: 2 Ovim istraživanjem obuhvaćeno je 30 parova braće uzrasta od 12 do 18 godina, karakterističnih po tome što jedan od braće ima poremećaj ponašanja a drugi ovaj poremećaj Prema ICD–10 (Klasifikacija mentalnih poremećaja i poremećaja ponašanja) (SZO, 1992), poremećaje ponašanja karakteriše ponavljano i trajno prisustvo obrazaca antisocijalnog, agresivnog i izazivačkog ponašanja. Primeri ponašanja na kojima se zasniva dijagnoza uključuju preterane tuče i zastrašivanja, surovost prema drugim ljudima ili životinjama, žestoku destruktivnost prema imovini, podmetanje požara, krađe, ponavljano laganje, izostajanje iz škole i bežanje od kuće, neobično teški i česti napadi besa, prkosno provokativno ponašanje i stalnu naznačenu neposlušnost. Svaka od navedenih kategorija, ako je naglašena, dovoljna je za dijagnozu. Izolovane antisocijalne ili kriminalne radnje nisu same po sebi osnova za dijagnozu, koja podrazumeva trajnije obrasce ponašanja (SZO, 1992). Kontakt adresa:
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    • "If the proposed relationships are found, this may lead to intervention studies. Several studies have demonstrated that self-serving cognitive distortions exist amongst sex offenders with ID (Broxholme & Lindsay, 2003; Langdon & Talbot, 2006; Lindsay & Michie, 2004; Lindsay, Whitefield, & Carson, 2007), which, based on moral reasoning theory, would relate to egocentric cognitive biases stemming from maladaptive moral schema. Most cognitive-behaviour treatment programmes regarding illegal behaviour, whether or not they involve people with an ID, focus upon correcting self-serving cognitive biases, but these interventions may not be nested within a moral reasoning framework. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies conclude there is a strong relationship between moral reasoning and illegal behaviour amongst young offenders. However, there has been no research examining this relationship amongst people with intellectual disabilities. There is some empirical evidence to suggest that the relationship between moral reasoning and illegal behaviour may be curvilinear, such that lower moral reasoning and higher moral reasoning relates to lower rates of illegal behaviour and inappropriate conduct. Given this, and evidence that people with intellectual disabilities are reasoning at a lower moral stage than their same-age peers, it is proposed that some people with intellectual disabilities may actually be less likely to engage in illegal behaviour because they are reasoning at an earlier moral stage, while those with ‘borderline’ intelligence would be more likely to engage in illegal behaviour. This suggests that the relationship between moral reasoning and illegal behaviour is moderated by intelligence, and this has implications for the design of intervention programmes for people with intellectual disabilities, but further research is needed.
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