Effects of probiotic or prebiotic supplemented milk formulas on fecal microbiota composition of infants.

Ultrastructure Laboratory, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA),University of Chile, J.P. Alessandri 5540, Santiago, Chile.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.36). 01/2006; 15(3):368-76.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to evaluate whether supplementation of milk-formulas with prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides or a probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (La1), could modulate the composition of the fecal microbiota of formula-fed infants, compared to breastfed (BF) infants. Ninety infants close to 4 months of age were randomized into one of three groups to be blindly assigned to receive for 13 weeks: a) an infant formula (Control), b) the same formula with fructo-oligosaccharides (Prebio), or c) with La1 (Probio). At the end of this period, all infants received the control formula for 2 additional weeks. Twenty-six infants, breastfed throughout the study, were recruited to form group BF. Fecal samples were obtained upon enrolment and after 7 and 15 weeks. Bacterial populations were assessed with classical culture techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Seventy-six infants completed the study. On enrolment, higher counts of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and lower counts of enterobacteria were observed in BF compared to the formula-fed infants; these differences tended to disappear at weeks 7 and 15. No major differences for Clostridium, Bacteroides or Enterococcus were observed between the groups or along the follow up. Probio increased fecal Lactobacillus counts (p<0.001); 88% of the infants in this group excreted live La1 in their stools at week 7 but only 17% at week 15. Increased Bifidobacterium counts were observed at week 7 in the 3 formula groups, similar to BF infants. These results confirm the presence of higher counts of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the microbiota of BF infants compared to formula-fed infants before dietary diversification, and that La1 survives in the infant digestive tract.

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    ABSTRACT: Several studies on the pathogenesis of allergy both in man and experimental animals continue to show the importance of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract in stimulating and directing the immune system. The interest in modulating commensal bacteria flora with pre- and probiotics to prevent and treat food allergy has multiplied in recent years. We recently studied 230 infants with atopic dermatitis and suspected cow's milk allergy. The infants were randomly allocated to groups which received Lactobacillus GG (LGG), a mixture of four probiotic strains (MIX) or placebo for 4 weeks. We inferred that probiotics induce systemically detectable low-grade inflammation, which may explain the clinical effects and the secretion pattern of cytokines induced by PBMC. To study the ability of probiotics to prevent allergy in children, we recruited 1223 pregnant women carrying fetuses at increased risk of allergy for a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Mothers used a mixture of four probiotic bacteria or a placebo from the 36th week of gestation. Their infants received the same probiotics plus prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides for 6 months. At the 2-year follow-up, a total of 925 infants participated. The cumulative incidence of allergic disease did not differ significantly between the synbiotic and the placebo group. However, synbiotics significantly reduced eczema. The preventive effect of synbiotics was more pronounced against IgE-associated diseases. At the 5 year follow-up, 891(88%) of the 1018 intention-to-treat infants attended. In the probiotic and placebo groups, frequencies of allergic symptoms and IgE-associated allergic disease and sensitization were similar, and the frequencies of eczema did not differ between the groups. Atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma appeared equal frequency in the groups. However, less IgE-associated allergic disease occurred in the cesarean-delivered infants given probiotics. In cesarean-delivered childen, we noticed a delayed rise in bifidobacteria recovery in placebo-treated children which was corrected by pro- and prebiotic supplementation. Indications from studies of feces and blood at the age 6 months suggest that probiotics may enhance both inflammation and immune defence of the gut. The probiotic treatment further stimulated maturation of the immune system since the infants given probiotics showed increased resistance to respiratory infections and improved vaccine antibody responses.
    11/2011; 30(4):119-28. DOI:10.12938/bifidus.30.119
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of a galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)-supplemented formula on the intestinal microbiota in healthy term infants, with a specific consideration for gastrointestinal symptoms as colic, stool frequency and consistency, regurgitation. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial performed simultaneously by 6 centers in Italy. Three groups were considered: breastfed, formula-fed, and GOS-supplemented formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants were randomized to receive either the control or the study formula and consume the assigned formula exclusively until the introduction of complementary feeding. The nutritional composition of the 2 formulas were identical, apart from the supplemented GOS (0.4 g/100 mL) in the study formula. Four different types of bacteria were evaluated in order to assess the efficacy of GOS-supplemented formula on infants: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium, Escherichia coli. Results: A total of 199 breastfed infants and 163 formula-fed infants were recruited. When considering stool frequency and consistency, GOS-supplemented formula presented normal and soft stools in the majority of episodes (89%). In the supplemented group the incidence of colic was lower with respect to the control group. A significantly lower count of Clostridium and a higher count of Bifidobacterium were found when comparing study formula and control formula in infants with colic. In children with colic the ratio between Clostridium count and Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus count was in favor of the latter two when considering the GOS-supplemented formula group with respect to the control one. Conclusions: The prebiotic-supplemented formula mimicked the effect of human milk in promoting Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus growth and in inhibiting Clostridium growth, resulting in a significantly lower presence of colic.
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition 10/2014; 33(5):1-9. DOI:10.1080/07315724.2013.878232 · 1.68 Impact Factor

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