Recent progress in animal modeling of immune inflammatory processes in schizophrenia: implication of specific cytokines.
ABSTRACT Epidemiologic studies demonstrate significant environmental impact of maternal viral infection and obstetric complications on the risk of schizophrenia and indicate their detrimental influences on brain development in this disorder. Based on these findings, animal models for schizophrenia have been established using double stranded RNA, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, hippocampal lesion, or prenatal/perinatal ischemia. Key molecules regulating such immune/inflammatory reactions are cytokines, which are also involved in brain development, regulating dopaminergic and GABAergic differentiation, and synaptic maturation. Specific members of the cytokine family, such as interleukin-1, epidermal growth factor, and neuregulin-1, are induced after infection and brain injury; therefore, certain cytokines are postulated to have a central role in the neurodevelopmental defects of schizophrenia. Recently, to test this hypothesis, a variety of cytokines were administered to rodent pups. Cytokines administered in the periphery penetrated the immature blood-brain barrier and perturbed phenotypic neural development. Among the many cytokines examined, epidermal growth factor (or potentially other ErbB1 ligands) and interleukin-1 specifically induced the most severe and persistent behavioral and cognitive abnormalities, most of which were ameliorated by antipsychotics. These animal experiments illustrate that, during early development, these cytokine activities in the periphery perturbs normal brain development and impairs later psychobehavioral and/or cognitive traits. The neurodevelopmental and behavioral consequences of prenatal/perinatal cytokine activity are compared with those of other schizophrenia models and cytokine interactions with genes are also discussed in this review.
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ABSTRACT: Pain is a serious problem for infants and children and treatment options are limited. Moreover, infants born prematurely or hospitalized for illness likely have concurrent infection that activates the immune system. It is now recognized that the immune system in general and glia in particular influence neurotransmission and that the neural bases of pain are intimately connected to immune function. We know that injuries that induce pain activate immune function and suppressing the immune system alleviates pain. Despite this advance in our understanding, virtually nothing is known of the role that the immune system plays in pain processing in infants and children, even though pain is a serious clinical issue in pediatric medicine. This brief review summarizes the existing data on immune-neural interactions in infants, providing evidence for the immaturity of these interactions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol.Developmental Psychobiology 12/2014; 56(8). DOI:10.1002/dev.21229 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. Gender differ-ences can be seen in various features of the illness and sex steroid hormones (e.g. estrogen) have strongly been implicated in the disease pathology. In the present study, we evaluated sex differences in the effects of prenatal exposure to a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in rats. Pregnant dams received LPS-injections (100 μg/kg) at gestational day 15 and 16. The offspring was then tested for prepulse inhibition (PPI), locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior and object recognition memory at various developmental time points. At postnatal day (PD) 33 and 60, prenatally LPS-exposed rats showed locomotor hyperactivity which was similar in male and female offspring. Moreover, prenatal LPS-treatment caused PPI deficits in pubertal (PD45) and adult (PD90) males while PPI impairments were found only at PD45 in prenatally LPS-treated females. Following prenatal LPS-administration, recognition memory for objects was impaired in both sexes with males being more severely affected. Additionally, we assessed prenatal infection-induced alterations of parvalbumin (Parv) expression and myelin fiber density. Male offspring born to LPS-challenged mothers showed decreased myelination in cortical and limbic brain regions as well as reduced numbers of Parv-expressing cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, LPS-exposed female rats showed only a modest de-crease in myelination and Parv immunoreactivity. Collectively, our data indicate that some of the prenatal im-mune activation effects are sex dependent and further strengthen the importance of taking into account gender differences in animal models of schizophrenia.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 10/2014; 57:17. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.10.004 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although understanding the relation between psychotic behavior and immune abnormalities has been the focus of research for many years, it remains to be elucidated whether the changes in cytokine levels are part of etiology or a result of the stress associated with the disorder. In accordance with previous studies on changes in cytokine levels due to metabolic changes and psychosis, we hypothesized that fatty liver may potentiate apomorphine-induced stereotypy in a rodent model and that a synthetic glucagon-like peptide-1 analog exenatide would ameliorate this effect. In this study, 18 male Sprague Dawley albino mature rats were used. We induced hepatosteatosis in these rats by feeding them with 30% fructose dissolved in drinking water for 8 weeks. The animals were divided into three groups, namely, the normal group, the intracerebroventricular (ICV) exenatide group, and the ICV NaCl group. Apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior test was performed in all groups and the liver was removed for histopathological examination after all the rats were euthanized. In the nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) group, stereotypy scores were significantly increased compared with the control group rats (p < 0.00001). A significant decrease in stereotypy scores were observed in the ICV exenatide group with NAFL when compared with the ICV saline group with NAFL (p < 0.005). In addition, brain malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α levels decreased in the ICV exenatide group. The results of this study showed that fatty liver enhances the effect of apomorphine on stereotypy, which was reversed by exenatide possibly by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.kjms.2014.05.007 · 0.61 Impact Factor