Article

Orbitofrontal cortex and social behavior: integrating self-monitoring and emotion-cognition interactions.

University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 4.49). 07/2006; 18(6):871-9. DOI: 10.1162/jocn.2006.18.6.871
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in social behavior remains a puzzle. Various theories of the social functions of the orbitofrontal cortex focus on the role of this area in either emotional processing or its involvement in online monitoring of behavior (i.e., self-monitoring). The present research attempts to integrate these two theories by examining whether improving the self-monitoring of patients with orbitofrontal damage is associated with the generation of emotions needed to guide interpersonal behavior. Patients with orbitofrontal damage, patients with lateral prefrontal damage, and healthy controls took part in an interpersonal task. After completing the task, participants' self-monitoring was increased by showing them a videotape of their task performance. In comparison to healthy controls and patients with lateral prefrontal damage, orbitofrontal damage was associated with objectively inappropriate social behavior. Although patients with orbitofrontal damage were aware of social norms of intimacy, they were unaware that their task performance violated these norms. The embarrassment typically associated with inappropriate social behavior was elicited in these patients only after their self-monitoring increased from viewing their videotaped performance. These findings suggest that damage to the orbitofrontal cortex impairs self-insight that may preclude the generation of helpful emotional information. The results highlight the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the interplay of self-monitoring and emotional processing and suggest avenues for neurorehabilitation of patients with social deficits subsequent to orbitofrontal damage.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
112 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impaired social cognition, including emotion recognition, may explain dysfunctional emotional and social behaviour in patients with lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). However, the VMPFC is a large, poorly defined area that can be sub-divided into orbital and medial sectors. We sought to investigate social cognition in patients with discrete, surgically circumscribed prefrontal lesions. Twenty-seven patients between 1 and 12 months post-neurosurgery were divided into groups based on Brodmann areas resected, determined by post-surgical magnetic resonance imaging. We hypothesized that patients with lesions to the VMPFC (n=5), anterior cingulate cortex (n=4), orbitofrontal cortex (n=7) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, n=11) would perform worse than a control group of 26 extra-cerebral neurosurgery patients on measures of dynamic facial emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM) and empathy. Results indicated the VMPFC-lesioned group performed significantly worse than the control group on the facial emotion recognition task overall, and for fear specifically, and performed worse on the ToM measure. The DLPFC group also performed worse on the ToM and empathy measures, but DLPFC lesion location was not a predictor of performance in hierarchical multiple regressions that accounted for other variables, including the reduced estimated verbal IQ in this group. It was concluded that isolated orbital or medial prefrontal lesions are not sufficient to produce impairments in social cognition. This is the first study to demonstrate that it is the combination of lesions to both areas that affect social cognition, irrespective of lesion volume. While group sizes were similar to other comparable studies that included patients with discrete, surgically circumscribed lesions to the prefrontal cortex, future large, multi-site studies are needed to collect larger samples and confirm these results.
    Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 08/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients and relatives experiences of behavioural and personality changes following brain tumour were assessed to determine whether these changes are more prominent in the experience of patients with frontal tumours and their relatives as a first step to evaluate the need to develop appropriate support and management of such changes, which have a substantial impact on social functioning, and ultimately to improve quality of life.
    Supportive Care Cancer 05/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Communicative speech is a type of language use that involves goal-directed action targeted at another person based on social interactive knowledge. Previous studies regarding one's first language (L1) have treated the theory of mind system, which is associated with understanding others, and the sensorimotor system, which is associated with action simulation, as important contributors to communication. However, little is known about the neural basis of communication in a second language (L2), which is limited in terms of its use as a communication tool. In this fMRI study, we manipulated the type of speech (i.e., communication vs. description) and the type of language (L1 vs. L2) to identify the specific brain areas involved in L2 communication. We also attempted to examine how the cortical mechanisms underlying L2 speech production are influenced by oral proficiency and anxiety regarding L2. Thirty native Japanese speakers who had learned English as an L2, performed communicative and descriptive speech-production tasks in both L1 and L2 while undergoing fMRI scanning. We found that the only the L2 communication task recruited the left posterior supramarginal gyrus (pSMG), which may be associated with the action simulation or prediction involved in generating goal-directed actions. Furthermore, the neural mechanisms underlying L2 communication, but not L2 description, were sensitive to both oral proficiency and anxiety levels; (a) activation in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) increased as oral proficiency levels increased, and (b) activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), including the left insula, decreased as L2 anxiety levels increased. These results reflect the successful retrieval of lexical information in a pragmatic context and an inability to monitor social behaviors due to anxiety. Taken together, the present results suggest that L2 communication relies on social skills and is mediated by anxiety and oral proficiency.
    Neuropsychologia 11/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
2 Downloads
Available from