Images of illusory motion in primary visual cortex.
ABSTRACT Illusory motion can be generated by successively flashing a stationary visual stimulus in two spatial locations separated by several degrees of visual angle. In appropriate conditions, the apparent motion is indistinguishable from real motion: The observer experiences a luminous object traversing a continuous path from one stimulus location to the other through intervening positions where no physical stimuli exist. The phenomenon has been extensively investigated for nearly a century but little is known about its neurophysiological foundation. Here we present images of activations in the primary visual cortex in response to real and apparent motion. The images show that during apparent motion, a path connecting the cortical representations of the stimulus locations is filled in by activation. The activation along the path of apparent motion is similar to the activation found when a stimulus is presented in real motion between the two locations.
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ABSTRACT: Long-range apparent motion is the illusory motion that can be perceived when two static and distant stimuli are presented in succession. Within some spatiotemporal range not only is motion sensed, but it appears as if one stimulus is displaced from one place to another (termed beta or optimal motion). Several groups have found that this illusory percept can interact with perception of a physically present stimulus, but some disagree on the origin of these interactions. We know little about how suppressive effects depend on feature-similarity between a target and the stimuli in apparent motion (inducers)-which would indicate an early perceptual locus-or even about the minimal conditions under which to obtain this effect. Unlike early studies that used a two-stroke apparent motion paradigm, we were able to demonstrate that motion can mask stimuli presented at interpolated locations along the apparent motion path, as shown by the elevation of contrast thresholds compared to a control condition. Apparent motion masking depended on color similarity between target and inducers. Further, we found evidence that the color of inducers alters the apparent color of intervening gray probes, indicating some inheritance or chromatic averaging across distant locations, but no clear evidence of predictive updating. Finally, the analysis of the presentation times delivering maximal masking effects suggests a predictive interpolation process is responsible for interference by apparent motion filling-in. We discuss alternative mechanisms, in particular the possible role of apparent-motion-induced metacontrast masking in generating this pattern of results.Journal of Vision 01/2012; 12(7). · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Illusory line motion (ILM) refers to a motion illusion in which a flash at one end of a bar prior to the bar's instantaneous presentation or removal results in the percept of motion. While some theories attribute the origin of ILM to attention or early perceptual mechanisms, others have proposed that ILM results from impletion mechanisms that reinterpret the static bar as one in motion. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined participants while they made decisions about the direction of motion in which a bar appeared to be removed. Preceding the instantaneous removal of the bar with a flash at one end resulted in a motion percept away from the flash. If this flash and the bar's removal overlapped in time, it appeared that the bar was removed towards the flash (reverse ILM). Independent of the motion type, brain responses indicated activations in areas associated with motion (MT+), endogenous and exogenous attention (intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and ventral frontal cortex), and response selection (ACC). ILM was associated with lower percept scores and higher activations in ACC relative to real motion, but no differences in shape-selective areas emerged. This pattern of brain activation is consistent with the attentional gradient model or bottom-up accounts of ILM in preference to impletion.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87595. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Experiments that test perceptual illusions and movement perception have relied predominantly on observing participant response to screen-based phenomena. There are a number of inherent problems to this experimental method as it involves flicker, ignores depth perception and bypasses the proprioceptive system, in short it is psychophysically distinct from dynam- ic real life (veridical) perception. Indeed there still is much disagreement regarding perception of apparent (screen-based) motion despite the fact that we view it in a myriad of ways on an everyday basis. With the aim of furthering our understand- ing and evaluation of veridical movement perception, the team sought to develop a replicable technique that included embod- ied, multi-sensory perception but eliminated the screen. They approached this by taking time-based techniques from anima- tion and converting them to the spatial;; grouping static objects according to Gestalt principles, to create sequential visual cues that, when lit with projected light, demand selective attention. ␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣ ␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣␣he name Diasynchronoscope comes from combining diachronic, (the study of a phenomenon as it changes through time) with synchronous and scope (view). In being so named, it evokes the early animation simulators such as the phenakistoscope and the zoetrope, regarded as direct ancestors of the project in acting both as art objects and experimental media. This paper documents the creation of this new, experimental medium in choreo- graphed time and discusses its potential as a novel tool for investigating aesthetics in movement.Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization, and Imaging; 05/2012