Preparative singlet oxygenation of linoleate provides doubly allylic dihydroperoxides: putative intermediates in the generation of biologically active aldehydes in vivo.
ABSTRACT Photoinduced oxygenation generates biologically active, oxidatively truncated lipids in the retina. Previously, doubly allylic dihydroperoxides, 9,12-dihydroperoxyoctadeca-10,13-dienoic acid (9,12-diHPODE) and 10,13-dihydroperoxyoctadeca-8,11-dienoic acid (10,13-diHPODE), were postulated as key intermediates in the free radical-promoted oxidative fragmentation of linoleate that generates aldehydes, such as the cytotoxic gamma-hydroxyalkenal 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), in vivo. We now report an efficient preparation of regioisomerically pure 9,12- and 10,13-diHPODE, devised to enable studies of their fragmentation reactions. Free radical-induced oxygenation of linoleate initially generates conjugated monohydroperoxy octadecadienoates (HPODEs) that are then converted into diHPODEs. In contrast, we found that singlet oxygenation of conjugated HPODEs does not produce diHPODEs. Unconjugated HPODEs are unique products of singlet oxygenation of linoleate that are coproduced with conjugated HPODEs. Preparative separation of the mixture of regioisomeric mono and diHPODEs generated by singlet oxygenation of linloeate is impractical. However, a simple tactic circumvented the problem. Thus, selective conversion of the undesired conjugated HPODEs into Diels-Alder adducts could be accomplished under mild conditions by reaction with N-phenyltriazolinedione. These adducts were readily removed, and the two remaining unconjugated HPODEs could then be easily isolated regioisomerically pure. Each of these was subsequently converted into a different, regioisomerically pure, diHPODE through further singlet oxygenation.
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ABSTRACT: Biologically active phospholipids that incorporate an oxidatively truncated acyl chain terminated by a γ-hydroxyalkenal are generated in vivo. The γ-hydroxyalkenal moiety protrudes from lipid bilayers like whiskers that serve as ligands for the scavenger receptor CD36, fostering endocytosis, e.g., of oxidatively damaged photoreceptor cell outer segments by retinal pigmented endothelial cells. They also covalently modify proteins generating carboxyalkyl pyrroles incorporating the ε-amino group of protein lysyl residues. We postulated that γ-hydroxyalkenals could be generated, e.g., in the eye, through fragmentation of hydroperoxy endoperoxides produced in the retina through reactions of singlet molecular oxygen with polyunsaturated phospholipids. Since phospholipid esters are far more abundant in the retina than free fatty acids, we examined the influence of a membrane environment on the fate of hydroperoxy endoperoxides. We now report that linoleate hydroperoxy endoperoxides in thin films and their phospholipid esters in biomimetic membranes fragment to γ-hydroxyalkenals, and fragmentation is stoichiometrically induced by vitamin E. The product distribution from fragmentation of the free acid in the homogeneous environment of a thin film is remarkably different from that from the corresponding phospholipid in a membrane. In the membrane, further oxidation of the initially formed γ-hydroxyalkenal to a butenolide is disfavored. A conformational preference for the γ-hydroxyalkenal, to protrude from the membrane into the aqueous phase, may protect it from oxidation induced by lipid hydroperoxides that remain buried in the lipophilic membrane core.Chemical Research in Toxicology 05/2011; 24(7):1080-93. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid predominantly found in the mitochondrial inner membrane and is associated structurally with individual complexes of the electron transport chain (ETC). Because the ETC is the major mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating site, the proximity to the ETC and bisallylic methylenes of the PUFA chains of CL make it a likely target of ROS in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Oxidized cellular CL products, uniquely derived from ROS-induced autoxidation, could serve as biomarkers for the presence of the ROS and could help in the understanding of the mechanism of oxidative stress. Because major CL species have four unsaturated acyl chains, whereas other phospholipids usually have only one in the sn-2 position, characterization of oxidized CL is highly challenging. In the current study, we exposed CL, under aerobic conditions, to singlet oxygen (¹O₂), the radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride, or room air, and the oxidized CL species were characterized by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Our reverse-phase ion-pair HPLC-MS/MS method can characterize the major and minor oxidized CL species by detecting distinctive fragment ions associated with specific oxidized species. The HPLC-MS/MS results show that monohydroperoxides and bis monohydroperoxides were generated under all three conditions. However, significant amounts of CL dihydroperoxides were produced only by ¹O₂-mediated oxidation. These products were barely detectable from radical oxidation either in a liposome bilayer or in thin film. These observations are only possible due to the chromatographic separation of the different oxidized species.The Journal of Lipid Research 01/2011; 52(1):125-35. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Singlet oxygen, (1)O(2), is produced by absorption of red light by the phthalocyanine dye Pc 4, followed by energy transfer to dissolved triplet molecular oxygen, (3)O(2). In tissues, Pc 4 concentrates in lipid bilayers, and particularly in mitochondrial membranes, because of its positive charge. Illumination of cells and tissues with red light after uptake of Pc 4 results in cell death. The potential initial chemical steps that result in cellular dysfunction have been characterized in this study. Both unsaturated acyl chains of phospholipids and proteins are identified as targets of oxidation. Tetra-linoleoyl cardiolipin was oxidized in both liposomes and mitochondria after Pc 4-mediated (1)O(2) generation. Evidence for the formation of both mono- and bis-hydroperoxide adducts of single linoleoyl side chains is provided by ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS. Similarly, illumination of Pc 4 in liposomes and mitochondria resulted in cytochrome c oxidation as detected by oxidation of His 26 in the peptide H(26)*KTGPNLHGLFGK, further supporting the potential use of this peptide as a biomarker for the presence of mitochondrial oxidative stress characteristic of (1)O(2) in vivo (J. Kim et al., Free Radic. Biol. Med. 44:1700-1711; 2008). These observations provide evidence that formation of lipid hydroperoxides and/or protein oxidation can be the initial chemical steps in Pc 4-mediated induction of apoptosis in photodynamic therapy.Free radical biology & medicine 09/2010; 49(5):718-25. · 5.42 Impact Factor