Preparative singlet oxygenation of linoleate provides doubly allylic dihydroperoxides: Putative intermediates in the generation of biologically active aldehydes in vivo
ABSTRACT Photoinduced oxygenation generates biologically active, oxidatively truncated lipids in the retina. Previously, doubly allylic dihydroperoxides, 9,12-dihydroperoxyoctadeca-10,13-dienoic acid (9,12-diHPODE) and 10,13-dihydroperoxyoctadeca-8,11-dienoic acid (10,13-diHPODE), were postulated as key intermediates in the free radical-promoted oxidative fragmentation of linoleate that generates aldehydes, such as the cytotoxic gamma-hydroxyalkenal 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), in vivo. We now report an efficient preparation of regioisomerically pure 9,12- and 10,13-diHPODE, devised to enable studies of their fragmentation reactions. Free radical-induced oxygenation of linoleate initially generates conjugated monohydroperoxy octadecadienoates (HPODEs) that are then converted into diHPODEs. In contrast, we found that singlet oxygenation of conjugated HPODEs does not produce diHPODEs. Unconjugated HPODEs are unique products of singlet oxygenation of linoleate that are coproduced with conjugated HPODEs. Preparative separation of the mixture of regioisomeric mono and diHPODEs generated by singlet oxygenation of linloeate is impractical. However, a simple tactic circumvented the problem. Thus, selective conversion of the undesired conjugated HPODEs into Diels-Alder adducts could be accomplished under mild conditions by reaction with N-phenyltriazolinedione. These adducts were readily removed, and the two remaining unconjugated HPODEs could then be easily isolated regioisomerically pure. Each of these was subsequently converted into a different, regioisomerically pure, diHPODE through further singlet oxygenation.
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ABSTRACT: This review summarizes present-day knowledge provided by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) concerning food lipid thermo-oxidative degradation. The food lipids considered include edible oils and fats of animal and vegetable origin. The thermo-oxidation processes of food lipids of very different composition, occurring at low, intermediate, or high temperatures, with different food lipid surfaces exposed to oxygen, are reviewed. Mention is made of the influence of both food lipid nature and degradative conditions on the thermo-oxidation process. Interest is focused not only on the evolution of the compounds that degrade, but also on the intermediate or primary oxidation compounds formed, as well as on the secondary ones, from both qualitative and quantitative points of view. Very valuable qualitative and quantitative information is provided by 1H NMR, which can be useful for metabolomic and lipidomic studies. The chemical shift assignments of spectral signals of protons of primary (hydroperoxides and hydroxides associated with conjugated dienes) and secondary, or further (aldehydes, epoxides, among which 9,10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate [leukotoxin] can be cited, alcohols, ketones) oxidation compounds is summarized. It is worth noting the ability of 1H NMR to detect toxic oxygenated α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, like 4-hydroperoxy-, 4,5-epoxy-, and 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, which can be generated in the degradation of food lipids having omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated groups in both biological systems and foodstuffs. They are considered as genotoxic and cytotoxic, and are potential causative agents of cancer, atherosclerosis, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 09/2014; 13(5). DOI:10.1111/1541-4337.12090 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 10/2014; 12(46). DOI:10.1039/C4OB01863J · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-1,2-oxazepin-5(2H)-ones and 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones from β-substituted β-hydroxyaminoaldehydes is reported. The β-hydroxyaminoaldehydes were prepared by enantioselective organocatalytic 1,4-addition of N-tert-butyl (tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxycarbamate to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (MacMillan protocol). Alkyne addition to the aldehydes followed by alcohol oxidation furnished N-Boc O-TBS-protected β-aminoynones. Removal of the TBS protecting group initiated a 7-endo-dig cyclization to yield previously unknown 3,4-dihydro-1,2-oxazepin-5(2H)-ones. Reductive cleavage of the N-O bond of the oxazepinones and Boc-deprotection provided 2-substituted 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones via 6-endo-trig cyclization. 2,3-Dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones are versatile intermediates that have been used for the synthesis of many alkaloids. The new protocol allows the synthesis of 3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones carrying an array of substituents at C2 that cannot be prepared from commercial β-amino acids or by one-carbon homologation of proteinogenic amino acids. The use of readily available β-hydroxylaminoaldehydes expands the utility of our previously reported method to prepare 2,3-dihydropyridin-4(1H)-ones from β-amino acids as the source of diversity and chirality. A broad substrate scope is possible because β-aminoaldehydes can be prepared from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes by an enantioselective organocatalytic process.The Journal of Organic Chemistry 02/2014; 79(3):984-992. DOI:10.1021/jo402445r · 4.64 Impact Factor