Cryopreservation by slow cooling with DMSO diminished production of Oct-4 pluripotency marker in human embryonic stem cells.
ABSTRACT We tested a "standard" cryopreservation protocol (slow cooling with 10% DMSO) on the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line H9 containing an Oct-4 (POU5F1) promoter-driven, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter to monitor maintenance of pluripotency. Cells were cooled to -80 degrees C in cryovials and then transferred to a -80 degrees C freezer. Cells were held at -80 degrees C for 3 days ("short-term storage") or 3 months ("long-term storage"). Vials were thawed in a +36 degrees C water bath and cells were cultured for 3, 7, or 14 days. Propidium iodide (PI) was used to assess cell viability by flow cytometry. Control cells were passaged on the same day that the frozen cells were thawed. The majority of cells in control hESC cultures were Oct-4 positive and almost 99% of EGFP+ cells were alive as determined by exclusion of PI. In contrast, the frozen cells, even after 3 days of culture, contained only 50% live cells, and only 10% were EGFP-positive. After 7 days in culture, the proportion of dead cells decreased and there was an increase in the Oct-4-positive population but microscopic examination revealed large patches of EGFP-negative cells within clusters of colonies even after 14 days of culturing. After 3 months of storage at -80 degrees C the deleterious effect of freezing was even more pronounced: the samples regained a quantifiable number of EGFP-positive cells only after 7 days of culturing following thawing. It is concluded that new protocols and media are required for freezing hESC and safe storage at -80 degrees C as well as studies of the mechanisms of stress-related events associated with cell cryopreservation.
Chapter: Cryopreservation of Rat Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Two Conventional and Open-Pulled Straw Vitrification Methods03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0302-8
Article: Effect of different freezing rates during cryopreservation of rat mesenchymal stem cells using combinations of hydroxyethyl starch and dimethylsulfoxide.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as therapeutic agents as well as research tools in regenerative medicine. Development of technologies which allow storing and banking of MSC with minimal loss of cell viability, differentiation capacity, and function is required for clinical and research applications. Cryopreservation is the most effective way to preserve cells long term, but it involves potentially cytotoxic compounds and processing steps. Here, we investigate the effect of decreasing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) concentrations in cryosolution by substituting with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) of different molecular weights using different freezing rates. Post-thaw viability, phenotype and osteogenic differentiation capacity of MSCs were analysed. The study confirms that, for rat MSC, cryopreservation effects need to be assessed some time after, rather than immediately after thawing. MSCs cryopreserved with HES maintain their characteristic cell surface marker expression as well as the osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential. HES alone does not provide sufficient cryoprotection for rat MSCs, but provides good cryoprotection in combination with DMSO, permitting the DMSO content to be reduced to 5%. There are indications that such a combination would seem useful not just for the clinical disadvantages of DMSO but also based on a tendency for reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity of rat MSC cryopreserved with high DMSO concentration. HES molecular weight appears to play only a minor role in its capacity to act as a cryopreservation solution for MSC. The use of a 'straight freeze' protocol is no less effective in maintaining post-thaw viability of MSC compared to controlled rate freezing methods. A 5% DMSO / 5% HES solution cryopreservation solution using a 'straight freeze' approach can be recommended for rat MSC.BMC Biotechnology 08/2012; 12(1):49. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cell therapy requires production of therapeutic cells in large quantity, which starts from thawing the cryopreserved cells from a working cell bank or a master cell bank. An optimal cryopreservation and thaw process determines the efficiency of hPSC expansion and plays a significant role in the subsequent lineage-specific differentiation. However, cryopreservation in hPSC bioprocessing has been a challenge due to the unique growth requirements of hPSC, the sensitivity to cryoinjury, and the unscalable cryopreservation procedures commonly used in the laboratory. Tremendous progress has been made to identify the regulatory pathways regulating hPSC responses during cryopreservation and the development of small molecule interventions that effectively improves the efficiency of cryopreservation. The adaption of these methods in current good manufacturing practices (cGMP)-compliant cryopreservation processes not only improves cell survival, but also their therapeutic potency. This review summarizes the advances in these areas and discusses the technical requirements in the development of cGMP-compliant hPSC cryopreservation process.BioResearch open access. 10/2012; 1(5):205-14.