From mice to macaques--animal models of HIV nervous system disease.
ABSTRACT Lentiviral diseases of animals have been recognized for over a century, long before HIV was recognized as the cause of AIDS. All lentiviruses cause neurological disease and productive virus replication in the CNS occurs exclusively in cells of macrophage lineage. The ability to molecularly engineer the inoculum virus, to sample the brain at many different time points from acute through terminal infection and to correlate in vivo with in vitro findings are significant advantages of animal models of HIV CNS disease. The lentiviruses can be divided into two pathogenetic groups--those that cause immunosuppression, including the lentiviruses of humans (HIV), non-human primates (SIV), cats (FIV), and cattle (BIV), and those that cause immunoproliferation, including the lentiviruses of horses (EIAV), sheep (OvLV) and goats (CAEV). Despite extensive study, no rodent lentivirus has been identified, prompting development of alternate strategies to study lentiviral pathogenesis using rodents. The immunosuppressive lentiviruses most closely recapitulate the disease manifestations of HIV infection, and both SIV and FIV have contributed significantly to our understanding of how HIV causes both central and peripheral nervous system disease.
Article: CAPIH: a Web interface for comparative analyses and visualization of host-HIV protein-protein interactions.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type one (HIV-1) is the major causing pathogen of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). A large number of HIV-1-related studies are based on three non-human model animals: chimpanzee, rhesus macaque, and mouse. However, the differences in host-HIV-1 interactions between human and these model organisms have remained unexplored. Here we present CAPIH (Comparative Analysis of Protein Interactions for HIV-1), the first web-based interface to provide comparative information between human and the three model organisms in the context of host-HIV-1 protein interactions. CAPIH identifies genetic changes that occur in HIV-1-interacting host proteins. In a total of 1,370 orthologous protein sets, CAPIH identifies approximately 86,000 amino acid substitutions, approximately 21,000 insertions/deletions, and approximately 33,000 potential post-translational modifications that occur only in one of the four compared species. CAPIH also provides an interactive interface to display the host-HIV-1 protein interaction networks, the presence/absence of orthologous proteins in the model organisms in the networks, the genetic changes that occur in the protein nodes, and the functional domains and potential protein interaction hot sites that may be affected by the genetic changes. The CAPIH interface is freely accessible at http://bioinfo-dbb.nhri.org.tw/capih. CAPIH exemplifies that large divergences exist in disease-associated proteins between human and the model animals. Since all of the newly developed medications must be tested in model animals before entering clinical trials, it is advisable that comparative analyses be performed to ensure proper translations of animal-based studies. In the case of AIDS, the host-HIV-1 protein interactions apparently have differed to a great extent among the compared species. An integrated protein network comparison among the four species will probably shed new lights on AIDS studies.BMC Microbiology 09/2009; 9:164. · 3.04 Impact Factor
Article: Comparative analysis of protein interaction networks reveals that conserved pathways are susceptible to HIV-1 interception.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) is the major pathogen that causes the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). With the availability of large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) measurements, comparative network analysis can provide a promising way to study the host-virus interactions and their functional significance in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Until now, there have been a large number of HIV studies based on various animal models. In this paper, we present a novel framework for studying the host-HIV interactions through comparative network analysis across different species. Based on the proposed framework, we test our hypothesis that HIV-1 attacks essential biological pathways that are conserved across species. We selected the Homo sapiens and Mus musculus PPI networks with the largest coverage among the PPI networks that are available from public databases. By using a local network alignment algorithm based on hidden Markov models (HMMs), we first identified the pathways that are conserved in both networks. Next, we analyzed the HIV-1 susceptibility of these pathways, in comparison with random pathways in the human PPI network. Our analysis shows that the conserved pathways have a significantly higher probability of being intercepted by HIV-1. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis shows that most of the enriched GO terms are related to signal transduction, which has been conjectured to be one of the major mechanisms targeted by HIV-1 for the takeover of the host cell. This proof-of-concept study clearly shows that the comparative analysis of PPI networks across different species can provide important insights into the host-HIV interactions and the detailed mechanisms of HIV-1. We expect that comparative multiple network analysis of various species that have different levels of susceptibility to similar lentiviruses may provide a very effective framework for generating novel, and experimentally verifiable hypotheses on the mechanisms of HIV-1. We believe that the proposed framework has the potential to expedite the elucidation of the important mechanisms of HIV-1, and ultimately, the discovery of novel anti-HIV drugs.BMC Bioinformatics 01/2011; 12 Suppl 1:S19. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages have been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and their resistance to virus-induced cytopathic effects allows them to serve as reservoirs for long-term infection. Thus, exploring the mechanisms of virus transmission from macrophages to target cells such as other macrophages or T lymphocytes is central to our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis and progression to AIDS, and is vital to the development of vaccines and novel antiretroviral therapies. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of cell-cell transmission in macrophages.Viruses 08/2010; 2(8):1603-1620. · 1.50 Impact Factor