Article

PCR detection of granulocytic Anaplasma and Babesia in Ixodes ricinus ticks and birds in west-central Poland.

Departament of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, Szczecin University, Al. Piastow 40B, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland.
Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM (Impact Factor: 3.06). 02/2006; 13(1):21-3.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to establish the role of forest birds as reservoirs of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. in Wielkopolski National Park. A total of 108 birds from 9 species were collected between May-September 2002. Blood samples were taken from 84 specimens and 442 individuals of the common tick, Ixodes ricinus, were collected from the birds. The 73 additional ticks were collected from vegetation. PCR amplification of a fragment of the epank 1 gene and 18S rRNA gene was used for detection of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia spp. DNA, respectively. Pathogen DNA was not detected in any of the blood samples or ticks collected from birds. On the other hand, 3 ticks collected from vegetation (4.1% of all examined specimens) were positive for A. phagocytophilum DNA. In spite of the high level of infestation of birds by I. ricinus, it is clear that they do not constitute a competent reservoir of A. phagocytophilum and Babesia in WNP. Additionally, I. ricinus is not a significant vector in this area.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Bogumiła Skotarczak, Feb 27, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
243 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum has for decades been known to cause the disease tick-borne fever (TBF) in domestic ruminants in Ixodes ricinus-infested areas in northern Europe. In recent years, the bacterium has been found associated with Ixodes-tick species more or less worldwide on the northern hemisphere. A. phagocytophilum has a broad host range and may cause severe disease in several mammalian species, including humans. However, the clinical symptoms vary from subclinical to fatal conditions, and considerable underreporting of clinical incidents is suspected in both human and veterinary medicine. Several variants of A. phagocytophilum have been genetically characterized. Identification and stratification into phylogenetic subfamilies has been based on cell culturing, experimental infections, PCR, and sequencing techniques. However, few genome sequences have been completed so far, thus observations on biological, ecological, and pathological differences between genotypes of the bacterium, have yet to be elucidated by molecular and experimental infection studies. The natural transmission cycles of various A. phagocytophilum variants, the involvement of their respective hosts and vectors involved, in particular the zoonotic potential, have to be unraveled. A. phagocytophilum is able to persist between seasons of tick activity in several mammalian species and movement of hosts and infected ticks on migrating animals or birds may spread the bacterium. In the present review, we focus on the ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum, especially the role of wildlife in contribution to the spread and sustainability of the infection in domestic livestock and humans.
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 07/2013; 3:31. DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2013.00031 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Babesia sp. in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of Passeriformes and were collected at Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad enclave of North-Western Russia. The ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, Turdus philomelos, Fringilla coelebs, Parus major, and Sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by PCR using the primers Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n for the detection of Rickettsia and BJ1/BN2 for Babesia spp. Babesia spp. were detected in 2 of 126 (1.6%) ticks. The partial sequence of 18S rDNA had 100% similarity to human pathogenic Babesia sp. EU1. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in 19 of 126 (15.1%) ticks collected from the above-mentioned bird species. BLAST analysis of SFG rickettsia gltA assigned sequences to human pathogenic Rickettsia helvetica (10.3%), Rickettsia monacensis (3.9%), and Rickettsia japonica (0.8%) with 98%-100% sequence similarity. The SFG rickettsiae and Babesia sp. EU1 in ticks collected from the passerines in Russia were detected for the first time. The survey indicates that migratory birds may become a reservoir for Babesia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. Future investigations need to characterize the role of birds in the epidemiology of these human pathogens in the region.
    Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) 01/2011; 11(1):89-91. DOI:10.1089/vbz.2010.0043 · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Granulocytic anaplasmoses represent a group of emerging tick-borne infectious diseases caused by the obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales) that infects granulocytes. It has been known as a ruminant pathogen in Europe since 1932, however, recently it has emerged as a pathogen of humans and domestic animals such as dogs and horses in the Northern Hemisphere, including United States and Europe. Rodents and game animals (especially deer) are presumed to play a crucial role in the maintenance of A. phagocytophilum in natural foci and serve as competent reservoirs. Up to now, the presence of bacterial DNA has been confirmed by molecular methods in a number of domestic and wildlife animals. Circulation of several genotypes has been confirmed in natural foci but the vector competence and the host spectrum involved in its circulation is still under investigation. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) typically occurs in spring or summer and clinical manifestations range from mild or self-limiting to severe disease, especially in elderly patients with up to 50% requiring hospitalization and 7% intensive care. So far, no confirmed A. phagocytophilum infections of humans have been reported in Slovakia despite the fact that the presence of anti-anaplasma antibodies has been detected in investigated patients sera. This fact could be explained by non-specific clinical signs of the infection or lack of information in physicians and underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed cases. The purpose of this review is to present biology, ecology and life cycle of A. phagocytophilum and introduce clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the infection caused by this pathogenic bacterium. Key words Anaplasma phagocytophilum -human granulocytic anaplasmosis-tick-transmitted infections- Ixodes ricinus, Ticks
    Biologia 12/2010; 65(6):925-931. DOI:10.2478/s11756-010-0119-2 · 0.70 Impact Factor