Pharmacological characterization of recombinant N-type calcium channel (Cav2.2) mediated calcium mobilization using FLIPR.
ABSTRACT The N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(v)2.2) functions in neurons to regulate neurotransmitter release. It comprises a clinically relevant target for chronic pain. We have validated a calcium mobilization approach to assessing Ca(v)2.2 pharmacology in two stable Ca(v)2.2 cell lines: alpha1(B), alpha2delta, beta(3)-HEK-293 and alpha1(B), beta(3)-HEK-293. Ca(v)2.2 channels were opened by addition of KCl and Ca(2+) mobilization was measured by Fluo-4 fluorescence on a fluorescence imaging plate reader (FLIPR(96)). Ca(v)2.2 expression and biophysics were confirmed by patch-clamp electrophysiology (EP). Both cell lines responded to KCl with adequate signal-to-background. Signals from both cell lines were inhibited by omega-conotoxin (ctx)-MVIIa and omega-conotoxin (ctx)-GVIa with IC(50) values of 1.8 and 1nM, respectively, for the three-subunit stable, and 0.9 and 0.6nM, respectively, for the two-subunit stable. Other known Ca(v)2.2 blockers were characterized including cadmium, flunarizine, fluspirilene, and mibefradil. IC(50) values correlated with literature EP-derived values. Novel Ca(v)2.2 pharmacology was identified in classes of compounds with other primary pharmacological activities, including Na(+) channel inhibitors and antidepressants. Novel Na(+) channel compounds with high potency at Ca(v)2.2 were identified in the phenoxyphenyl pyridine, phenoxyphenyl pyrazole, and other classes. The highest potency at Ca(v)2.2 tricyclic antidepressant identified was desipramine.
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ABSTRACT: Ca(v)2.2 is a calcium channel subtype localized at nerve terminals, including nociceptive fibers, where it initiates neurotransmitter release. Ca(v)2.2 is an important contributor to synaptic transmission in ascending pain pathways, and is up-regulated in the spinal cord in chronic pain states along with the auxiliary α2δ1 subunit. It is therefore not surprising that toxins that inhibit Ca(v)2.2 are analgesic. Venomous animals, such as cone snails, spiders, snakes, assassin bugs, centipedes and scorpions are rich sources of remarkably potent and selective Ca(v)2.2 inhibitors. However, side effects in humans currently limit their clinical use. Here we review Ca(v)2.2 inhibitors from venoms and their potential as drug leads.Toxins 02/2013; 5(2):286-314. DOI:10.3390/toxins5020286 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Ca(V)2.2 (N-type) calcium channels are key regulators of neurotransmission. Evidence from knockout animals and localization studies suggest that Ca(V)2.2 channels play a critical role in nociceptive transmission. Additionally, ziconotide, a selective peptide inhibitor of Ca(V)2.2 channels, is clinically used to treat refractory pain. However, the use of ziconotide is limited by its low therapeutic index, which is believed, at least in part, to be a consequence of ziconotide inhibiting Ca(V)2.2 channels regardless of the channel state. Subsequent efforts have focused on the discovery of state-dependent inhibitors that preferentially bind to the inactivated state of Ca(V)2.2 channels in order to achieve an improved safety profile relative to ziconotide. Much less attention has been paid to understanding the binding kinetics of these state-dependent inhibitors. Here, we describe a novel electrophysiology-based assay on an automated patch platform designed to differentiate Ca(V)2.2 inhibitors based on their combined state dependence and kinetics. More specifically, this assay assesses inactivated state block, closed state block, and monitors the kinetics of recovery from block when channels move between states. Additionally, a use-dependent assay is described that uses a train of depolarizing pulses to drive channels to a similar level of inactivation for comparison. This use-dependent protocol also provides information on the kinetics of block development. Data are provided to show how these assays can be utilized to screen for kinetic diversity within and across chemical classes.Assay and Drug Development Technologies 03/2012; DOI:10.1089/adt.2011.437 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells provide a useful in vitro model to study the mechanisms underlying neurotransmission and nociception. These cells are derived from human sympathetic neuronal tissue and thus, express a number of the Cav channel subtypes essential for regulation of important physiological functions, such as heart contraction and nociception, including the clinically validated pain target Cav2.2. We have detected mRNA transcripts for a range of endogenous expressed subtypes Cav1.3, Cav2.2 (including two Cav1.3, and three Cav2.2 splice variant isoforms) and Cav3.1 in SH-SY5Y cells; as well as Cav auxiliary subunits α2δ1-3, β1, β3, β4, γ1, γ4-5, and γ7. Both high- and low-voltage activated Cav channels generated calcium signals in SH-SY5Y cells. Pharmacological characterisation using ω-conotoxins CVID and MVIIA revealed significantly (∼ 10-fold) higher affinity at human versus rat Cav2.2, while GVIA, which interacts with Cav2.2 through a distinct pharmacophore had similar affinity for both species. CVID, GVIA and MVIIA affinity was higher for SH-SY5Y membranes vs whole cells in the binding assays and functional assays, suggesting auxiliary subunits expressed endogenously in native systems can strongly influence Cav2.2 channels pharmacology. These results may have implications for strategies used to identify therapeutic leads at Cav2.2 channels.PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59293. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059293 · 3.53 Impact Factor