Pharmacological characterization of recombinant N-type calcium channel (Cav2.2) mediated calcium mobilization using FLIPR.
ABSTRACT The N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Ca(v)2.2) functions in neurons to regulate neurotransmitter release. It comprises a clinically relevant target for chronic pain. We have validated a calcium mobilization approach to assessing Ca(v)2.2 pharmacology in two stable Ca(v)2.2 cell lines: alpha1(B), alpha2delta, beta(3)-HEK-293 and alpha1(B), beta(3)-HEK-293. Ca(v)2.2 channels were opened by addition of KCl and Ca(2+) mobilization was measured by Fluo-4 fluorescence on a fluorescence imaging plate reader (FLIPR(96)). Ca(v)2.2 expression and biophysics were confirmed by patch-clamp electrophysiology (EP). Both cell lines responded to KCl with adequate signal-to-background. Signals from both cell lines were inhibited by omega-conotoxin (ctx)-MVIIa and omega-conotoxin (ctx)-GVIa with IC(50) values of 1.8 and 1nM, respectively, for the three-subunit stable, and 0.9 and 0.6nM, respectively, for the two-subunit stable. Other known Ca(v)2.2 blockers were characterized including cadmium, flunarizine, fluspirilene, and mibefradil. IC(50) values correlated with literature EP-derived values. Novel Ca(v)2.2 pharmacology was identified in classes of compounds with other primary pharmacological activities, including Na(+) channel inhibitors and antidepressants. Novel Na(+) channel compounds with high potency at Ca(v)2.2 were identified in the phenoxyphenyl pyridine, phenoxyphenyl pyrazole, and other classes. The highest potency at Ca(v)2.2 tricyclic antidepressant identified was desipramine.
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ABSTRACT: The physical interaction between the presynaptic vesicle release complex and the large cytoplasmic region linking domains II and III of N-type (Ca(v)2.2) calcium channel alpha(1)B subunits is considered to be of fundamental importance for efficient neurotransmission. By PCR analysis of human brain cDNA libraries and IMR32 cell mRNA, we have isolated novel N-type channel variants, termed Ca(v)2.2-Delta1 and Delta2, which lack large parts of the domain II-III linker region, including the synaptic protein interaction site. They appear to be widely expressed across the human CNS as indicated by RNase protection assays. When expressed in tsA-201 cells, both novel variants formed barium-permeable channels with voltage dependences and kinetics for activation that were similar to those observed with the full-length channel. All three channel types exhibited the hallmarks of prepulse facilitation, which interestingly occurred independently of G-protein betagamma subunits. By contrast, the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation seen with both Delta1 and Delta2 channels was shifted toward more depolarized potentials, and recovery from inactivation of Delta1 and Delta2 channels occurred more rapidly than that of the full-length channel. Moreover, the Delta1 channel was dramatically less sensitive to both omega-conotoxin MVIIA and GVIA than either the Delta2 variant or the full-length construct. Finally, the domain II-III linker region of neither variant was able to effectively bind syntaxin in vitro. These results suggest that the structure of the II-III linker region is an important determinant of N-type channel function and pharmacology. The lack of syntaxin binding hints at a unique physiological function of these channels.Journal of Neuroscience 02/2002; 22(1):82-92. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated calcium channels are important mediators of several physiological processes, including neuronal excitability and muscle contraction. At the molecular level, the channels are composed of four subunits--the pore forming alpha(1) subunit and the auxiliary alpha(2)delta, beta and gamma subunits. The auxiliary subunits modulate the trafficking and the biophysical properties of the alpha(1) subunit. In the past several years there has been an acceleration of our understanding of the auxiliary subunits, primarily because of their molecular characterization and the availability of spontaneous and targeted mouse mutants. These studies have revealed the crucial role of the subunits in the functional effects that are mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels.Current Opinion in Neurobiology 07/2003; 13(3):298-307. · 7.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 47 patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) who had never had an adequate trial of any antidepressant, we performed a randomized, double-blind, parallel design trial comparing desipramine, amitriptyline, and fluoxetine. Patients were titrated to a maximum of 150 mg/day for desipramine and amitriptyline and 60 mg/day for fluoxetine over a 3-week period and then treated for an additional 3 weeks before tapering off study medication. A total of 38 subjects (81%) completed the entire trial. The modified intent-to-treat analysis of percent change in daily diary pain intensity scores showed no significant differences among the 3 drugs (ANOVA P = .120). Desipramine produced the greatest reduction in pain intensity (47%), followed by amitriptyline (38%) and fluoxetine (35%). Clinically meaningful pain relief (moderate or better) was significantly more likely with desipramine (12/15 patients) than with amitriptyline (9/17) or fluoxetine (5/15); chi(2)P = 0.036). The 11 subjects using opioids at study entry had smaller reductions in pain than those not using concomitant opioids. The fluoxetine group had the highest noncompletion rate (33%), with 1 subject hospitalized for hyponatremia. Although the magnitude of pain reduction and the category pain relief rating was not significantly different among the 3 drugs, the tricyclics desipramine and amitriptyline were well tolerated and provided clinically meaningful pain relief in 53% to 80% of subjects. PERSPECTIVE: Few clinical trials focus on patients who are naïve to an entire class of medication. In this randomized blinded trial, the tricyclic antidepressants desipramine and amitriptyline were compared to the serotonin-selective antidepressant fluoxetine. All 3 drugs reduced PHN pain, with desipramine providing satisfactory relief in 80% of those treated.Journal of Pain 12/2005; 6(11):741-6. · 3.24 Impact Factor