In vitro exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine is cytotoxic to bovine articular chondrocytes
ABSTRACT Intra-articular use of 0.5% bupivacaine is common in arthroscopic surgery. This study was conducted to test the hypotheses that (1) 0.5% bupivacaine is toxic to articular chondrocytes, and (2) the intact articular surface protects chondrocytes from the effects of short-term exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine.
Freshly isolated bovine articular chondrocytes were prepared into alginate bead cultures and were treated with 0.5% bupivacaine solution or 0.9% saline for 15, 30 or 60 minutes, washed, and returned to growth media. Chondrocytes were recovered from alginate 1 hour, 1 day, and 1 week after bupivacaine exposure; they were fluorescently labeled to identify apoptotic and dead cells and were analyzed by flow cytometry. Twelve osteochondral cores were harvested from bovine knees. The superficial 1 mm of cartilage was removed from 6 cores (top-off). Intact and top-off cores were submerged in 0.9% saline or 0.5% bupivacaine solution for 30 minutes and then maintained in chondrocyte growth media for 24 hours. Live-cell/dead-cell fluorescent imaging was assessed using confocal microscopy.
Greater than 99% chondrocyte death/apoptosis was observed in all bupivacaine-exposed alginate bead cultures compared with 20% cell death in saline-treated controls (P < .05). Osteochondral cores with intact surfaces treated with 0.5% bupivacaine showed 42% dead chondrocytes. When the articular surface was removed, 0.5% bupivacaine resulted in increased cell death, with 75% dead chondrocytes (P < .05).
Results show that 0.5% bupivacaine solution is cytotoxic to bovine articular chondrocytes and articular cartilage in vitro after only 15 to 30 minutes' exposure. The intact bovine articular surface has some chondroprotective effects.
Because healthy chondrocytes are important for maintenance of the cartilage matrix, chondrocyte loss may contribute to cartilage degeneration. This study shows a cytotoxic effect of 0.5% bupivacaine solution on bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical setting, the data suggest that caution should be exercised in the intra-articular use of 0.5% bupivacaine.
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ABSTRACT: Analgesic discography (discoblock) can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109851. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109851 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess whether reducing environmental temperature will lead to increased chondrocyte viability following injury from a single-dose of local anesthetic treatment. Bovine articular chondrocytes from weight bearing portions of femoral condyles were harvested and cultured. 96-well plates were seeded with 15,000 chondrocytes per well. Chondrocytes were treated with one of the following conditions: ITS Media, 1x PBS, 2% lidocaine, 0.5% bupivacaine, or 0.5% ropivacaine. Each plate was then incubated at 37°C, 23°C, or 4°C for one hour and then returned to media at 37°C. Chondrocyte viability was assessed 24 hours after treatment. Chondrocyte viability is presented as a ratio of the fluorescence of the treatment group over the average of the media group at that temperature (ratio ± SEM). At 37°C, lidocaine (0.35 ± 0.04) and bupivacaine (0.30 ± 0.05) treated chondrocytes show low cell viability when compared to the media (1.00 ± 0.03) control group (p < 0.001). Lidocaine treated chondrocytes were significantly more viable at 23°C (0.84 ± 0.08) and 4°C (0.86±0.085) than at 37°C (p < 0.001). Bupivacaine treated chondrocytes were significantly more viable at 4°C (0.660 ± 0.073) than at 37°C or 23°C (0.330 ± 0.069) (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002 respectively). Reducing the temperature from 37°C to 23°C during treatment with lidocaine increases chondrocyte viability following injury. Chondrocytes treated with bupivacaine can be rescued by reducing the temperature to 4°C. Key pointsConfirm that local anesthetics, specifically bupivacaine and lidocaine, are toxic to chondrocytes in monolayerChondrocyte viability significantly improved for chondrocytes treated with bupivacaine when the environment was cooled to 23°C.Chondrocyte viability significantly improved for chondrocytes treated with bupivacaine or lidocaine when the environment was cooled to 4°CIt is the recommendation of the authors that physicians should be wary of the risks of injecting local anesthetics into the intra-articular space.Active cooling of the joint could potentially protect the articular cartilage from insult following treatment with local anesthetics.
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ABSTRACT: Intra-articular bupivacaine helps alleviate pain in animals receiving joint surgery, but its use has become controversial as ex vivo studies have illuminated the potential for chondrotoxicity. Such studies typically involve cell cultures incubated in solutions containing high bupivacaine concentrations for long durations. The aim of this study was to measure the actual synovial fluid bupivacaine concentrations after intra-articular injection. Eight healthy beagles with normal stifles and 22 large and giant-breed dogs with stifle osteoarthritis (OA) were treated with a single intra-articular injection of bupivacaine (1 mg/kg) into a stifle. Joint fluid samples were taken from the treated stifle immediately after injection and 30 min after injection and analyzed for bupivacaine concentrations. Immediately after injection, the median bupivacaine concentrations in normal and OA stifles were 3.6 and 2.5 mg/mL, respectively. Thirty minutes after injection, bupivacaine concentrations in normal and OA stifles were 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL, respectively. These results provide insight into the pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after injection into a joint. Given its immediate dilution and rapid drop in synovial fluid concentration, bupivacaine is unlikely to damage chondrocytes when administered as a single intra-articular injection.Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 09/2014; 38(1). DOI:10.1111/jvp.12158 · 1.35 Impact Factor