Aptamers come of age - At last

Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.
Nature Reviews Microbiology (Impact Factor: 23.57). 09/2006; 4(8):588-96. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro1458
Source: PubMed


Nucleic-acid aptamers have the molecular recognition properties of antibodies, and can be isolated robotically for high-throughput applications in diagnostics, research and therapeutics. Unlike antibodies, however, they can be chemically derivatized easily to extend their lifetimes in biological fluids and their bioavailability in animals. The first aptamer-based clinical drugs have recently entered service. Meanwhile, active research programmes have identified a wide range of anti-viral aptamers that could form the basis for future therapeutics.

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    • "Aptamers are artificial oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) selected in vitro that bind a broad range of biomedically relevant targets with high affinity and specificity. These molecules are useful in biotechnological and therapeutic applications and offer advantages over antibodies due to their facile chemical syntheses and engineering and low or no immunogenicity [1] [2]. Nucleic acid aptamers act as inhibitors with great promise, in particular as targeting ligands for treatments or diagnoses of cancer, HIV and other diseases [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the facile syntheses of new modified oligonucleotides based on d(TG3AG) that form bimolecular G-quadruplexes and possess a HEG loop as an inversion of polarity site 3'-3' or 5'-5' and aromatic residues conjugated to the 5'-end through phosphodiester bonds. The conjugated hairpin G-quadruplexes exhibited parallel orientation, high thermal stability, elevated resistance in human serum and high or moderate anti-HIV-1 activity with low cytotoxicity. Further, these molecules showed significant binding to HIV envelope glycoproteins gp120, gp41 and HSA, as revealed by SPR assays. As a result, these conjugated hairpins represent the first active anti-HIV-1 bimolecular G-quadruplexes based on the d(TG3AG) sequence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2015; 89:51–58. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.10.030 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    • "Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides, produced by the iterative process termed systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment or SELEX [24,25,26], that fold into complex structures and bind target molecules in a conformation-dependent manner. Aptamers can be stabilised against degradation and can be modified to render them non-immunogenic (for reviews see [27,28,29]). Furthermore, because of the high affinity of aptamer binding, these molecules have the ability to modulate the function of target molecules and therefore have therapeutic potential. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a high-risk DNA tumour virus which is the primary causative agent of cervical cancer. Cell transformation arises from deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including p53 and proteins containing a PDZ domain. This study reports the first RNA aptamers to E6. These have been employed as molecular tools to further investigate E6-p53 and E6-PDZ interactions. This study is focussed on two aptamers (termed F2 and F4) which induced apoptosis in cells derived from an HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma. The molecules were able to inhibit the interaction between E6 and PDZ1 from Magi1, with F2 being the most effective inhibitor. Neither of the aptamers inhibited E6-p53 interaction or p53 degradation. This study shows the specificity of this approach and highlights the potential benefits of the E6 aptamers as potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents in the future.
    Cancers 09/2014; 6(3):1553-69. DOI:10.3390/cancers6031553
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    • "Aptamers have several distinct advantages over antibodies including enhanced affinity and specificity, resulting in better limit of detection (LOD) for biosensing applications. Typically, they are also smaller than antibodies enabling them to bind to epitomes that are otherwise inaccessible to antibodies (Stockley & Bunka, 2006). Aptamers are selected in similar conditions to those of a real matrix and can be modified during immobilization without any adverse effect on their affinity. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this chapter is fourfold: firstly to introduce the major foodborne pathogens that exist in food samples. The second section introduces the microfluidic concept. Despite being developed in the early 1990s, this technology has changed, ,enabling the integration of various sensing techniques as well as the manipulation of samples and various fabrication and detection techniques which are presented in this section. In the third section, two significant but different sensing techniques are discussed: proteomics and genomic. Proteomics provides direct whole cell detection methods with low sensitivity while genomic based techniques are based on extracting and amplifying DNA from the cells. Various amplification techniques including PCR and isothermal amplification methods are discussed. Finally in the fourth section, several lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platforms for foodborne bacterial detection are presented. This chapter therefore, provides a mini review on the application of various proteomic and genomic based methods as well as gene amplification techniques using microfluidic technologies to support in-field bacterial detection in food samples.
    High Throughput Screening for Food Safety Assessment: Biosensor Technologies, Hyperspectral Imaging and Practical Applications, Edited by Arun K. Bhunia, Moon S. Kim, 08/2014: chapter Microfluidic biosensors for high throughput screening of pathogens in food; Woodhead Publishing., ISBN: 0857098012
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