Wounding stimulates the accumulation of glycerolipids containing oxophytodienoic acid and dinor-oxophytodienoic acid in Arabidopsis leaves.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 66506, USA.
Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 7.39). 10/2006; 142(1):28-39. DOI: 10.1104/pp.106.082115
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although oxylipins can be synthesized from free fatty acids, recent evidence suggests that oxylipins are components of plastid-localized polar complex lipids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using a combination of electrospray ionization (ESI) collisionally induced dissociation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) to identify acyl chains, ESI triple-quadrupole (Q) MS in the precursor mode to identify the nominal masses of complex polar lipids containing each acyl chain, and ESI Q-time-of-flight MS to confirm the identifications of the complex polar lipid species, 17 species of oxylipin-containing phosphatidylglycerols, monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDG), and digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDG) were identified. The oxylipins of these polar complex lipid species include oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), dinor-OPDA (dnOPDA), 18-carbon ketol acids, and 16-carbon ketol acids. Using ESI triple-Q MS in the precursor mode, the accumulation of five OPDA- and/or dnOPDA-containing MGDG and two OPDA-containing DGDG species were monitored as a function of time in mechanically wounded leaves. In unwounded leaves, the levels of these oxylipin-containing complex lipid species were low, between 0.001 and 0.023 nmol/mg dry weight. However, within the first 15 min after wounding, the levels of OPDA-dnOPDA MGDG, OPDA-OPDA MGDG, and OPDA-OPDA DGDG, each containing two oxylipin chains, increased 200- to 1,000-fold. In contrast, levels of OPDA-hexadecatrienoic acid MGDG, linolenic acid (18:3)-dnOPDA MGDG, OPDA-18:3 MGDG, and OPDA-18:3 DGDG, each containing a single oxylipin chain, rose 2- to 9-fold. The rapid accumulation of high levels of galactolipid species containing OPDA-OPDA and OPDA-dnOPDA in wounded leaves is consistent with these lipids being the primary products of plastidic oxylipin biosynthesis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The term oxylipin is applied to the generation of oxygenated products of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can arise either through non-enzymatic or enzymatic processes generating a complex array of products, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids and hydrocarbon gases. The biosynthetic origin of these products has revealed an array of enzymes involved in their formation and more recently a radical pathway. These include lipoxygenases and α-dioxygenase that insert both oxygen atoms in to the acyl chain to initiate the pathways, to specialized P450 monooxygenases that are responsible for their downstream processing. This latter group include enzymes at the branch points such as allene oxide synthase, leading to jasmonate signalling, hydroperoxide lyase, responsible for generating pathogen/pest defensive volatiles and divinyl ether synthases and peroxygenases involved in the formation of antimicrobial compounds. The complexity of the products generated raises significant challenges for their rapid identification and quantification using metabolic screening methods. Here the current developments in oxylipin metabolism are reviewed together with the emerging technologies required to expand this important field of research that underpins advances in plant-pest/pathogen interactions.
    Free Radical Research 12/2014; DOI:10.3109/10715762.2014.1000318 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OPDA likely plays signaling roles in plant defense that do not depend on its further conversion to the phytohormone jasmonic acid. To elucidate the role of OPDA in tomato plant defense, we have silenced the 12-oxophytodienoate reductase 3 (OPR3) gene. Two independent transgenic tomato lines (SiOPR3-1 and SiOPR3-2) showed significantly reduced OPR3 expression upon infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Moreover, SiOPR3 plants are more susceptible to this pathogen, and this susceptibility is accompanied by a significant decrease in the OPDA levels and an almost abolished JA-Ile production. OPR3 silencing also leads to a major reduction in the expression of other genes of the jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling pathways after infection. These results confirm that in tomato plants, as in Arabidopsis, OPR3 determines OPDA availability for JA biosynthesis. In addition, we show that an intact JA biosynthetic pathway is required for proper callose deposition since its pathogen-induced accumulation is reduced in SiOPR3 plants. Interestingly, OPDA, but not JA, treatment restored basal resistance to B. cinerea and induced callose deposition in SiOPR3-1 and SiOPR3-2 transgenic plants. These results provide clear evidence that OPDA by itself plays a major role in basal defense of tomato plants against this necrotrophic pathogen.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    The Plant Journal 11/2014; 81(2). DOI:10.1111/tpj.12728 · 6.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: From the aerial parts of Salvia adenophora Fernald four derivatives of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1-4) together with five clerodane diterpenoids (5, 6, 8-10), and one known diterpene (7) have been isolated. Compounds 1-6 and 8-10 are described for the first time. The structures were established by extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI-TOFMS spectroscopic methods. Finally, the absolute configuration has been established by comparing of experimental and quantum chemical calculation of ECD spectra. Despite a total lack of antimicrobial activity of the plant extract, hinting to the existence of antagonistic interactions in the crude material, three oxylipins (2-4) displayed a promising inhibition on Gram-positive multidrug-resistant clinical strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and, particularly, Staphylococcus epidermidis, while the compounds 9 and 10 revealed a specific and strain-dependent activity against S. epidermidis. Interestingly, the inhibition provided by these compounds was independent of the resistance patterns of these pathogens to classic antibiotics. No action was reported on Gram-negative strains nor on Candida albicans. These results confirm that clerodanes and, particularly, prostaglandin-like compounds can be considered as interesting antimicrobial agents deserving further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Phytochemistry 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.10.033 · 3.35 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014