C-peptide improves neuropathy in type 1 diabetic BB/Wor-rats.
ABSTRACT The spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor-rat is a close model of human type 1 diabetes and develops diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) similar to that seen in type 1 patients. Here we examine the therapeutic effects of C-peptide, delivered as continuous infusion or once daily subcutaneous injections on established DPN.
Diabetic rats were treated from four to seven months duration of diabetes with full continuous replacement dose of rat C-peptide via (a) osmopumps (OS), (b) full replacement dose (HSC) or (c) one-third of full replacement dose (LSC) by once daily injections.
Diabetic rats treated with OS showed improvements in motor nerve conduction velocity (p < 0.001), sural nerve myelinated fibre number (p < 0.005), size (p < 0.05), axonal area (p < 0.001), regeneration (p < 0.001) and overall neuropathy score (p < 0.001). The progressive decline in sensory nerve conduction velocity was fully prevented. The frequencies of Wallerian degeneration were decreased (p < 0.005). HSC-treated rats showed prevention of further progression of DPN (p < 0.001), whereas LSC-treated rats showed a milder progression of DPN (p < 0.001) compared to untreated rats as assessed by neuropathy score.
We conclude that (1) C-peptide is effective in the treatment of established DPN, (2) its effect is dose-dependent and (3) replacement by continuous infusion is the most effective administration of C-peptide.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is the most common late complication of diabetes mellitus. The underlying pathogenesis is multifaceted, with partly interrelated mechanisms that display a dynamic course. The mechanisms underlying DPN in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus show overlaps or may differ. The differences are mainly due to insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes which exacerbates the abnormalities caused by hyperglycaemia. Experimental DPN in rat models have identified early metabolic abnormalities with consequences for nerve conduction velocities and endoneurial blood flow. When corrected, the early functional deficits are usually normalised. On the other hand, if not corrected, they lead to abnormalities in lipid peroxidation and expression of neurotrophic factors which in turn result in axonal, nodal and paranodal degenerative changes with worsening of nerve function. As the structural changes progress, they become increasingly less amendable to metabolic interventions. In the past several years, experimental drugs--such as aldose reductase inhibitors, antioxidants and protein kinase C inhibitors--have undergone clinical trials, with disappointing outcomes. These drugs, targeting a single underlying pathogenetic factor, have in most cases been initiated at the advanced stage of DPN. In contrast, substitution of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) or C-peptide in type 1 DPN target a multitude of underlying mechanisms and are therefore more likely to be effective on a broader spectrum of the underlying pathogenesis. Clinical trials utilising ALC have shown beneficial effects on nerve conduction slowing, neuropathic pain, axonal degenerative changes and nerve fibre regeneration, despite relatively late initiation in the natural history of DPN. Owing to the good safety profile of ALC, early initiation of ALC therapy would be justified, with potentially greater benefits.CNS Drugs 02/2007; 21 Suppl 1:13-23; discussion 45-6. DOI:10.2165/00023210-200721001-00003 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes targets the peripheral nervous system with several different patterns of damage and several mechanisms of disease. Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is a common disorder involving a large proportion of diabetic patients, yet its pathophysiology is controversial. Mechanisms considered have included polyol flux, microangiopathy, oxidative stress, abnormal signaling from advanced glycation endproducts and growth factor deficiency. Although some clinical trials have demonstrated modest benefits in disease stabilization or pain therapy in DPN, robust therapy capable of reversing the disease is unavailable. In this review, general aspects of DPN and other diabetic neuropathies are examined, including a summary of recent therapeutic trials. A particular emphasis is placed on the evidence that the neurobiology of DPN reflects a unique yet common and disabling neurodegenerative disorder.Muscle & Nerve 08/2007; 36(2):144-66. DOI:10.1002/mus.20785 · 2.31 Impact Factor
- Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques 09/2007; 1(3). DOI:10.1016/S1957-2557(07)92001-5