Tripeptidyl peptidase II is the major peptidase needed to trim long antigenic precursors, but is not required for most MHC class I antigen presentation.

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 09/2006; 177(3):1434-43. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.177.3.1434
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent reports concluded that tripeptidyl peptidase (TPPII) is essential for MHC class I Ag presentation and that the proteasome in vivo mainly releases peptides 16 residues or longer that require processing by TPPII. However, we find that eliminating TPPII from human cells using small interfering RNA did not decrease the overall supply of peptides to MHC class I molecules and reduced only modestly the presentation of SIINFEKL from OVA, while treatment with proteasome inhibitors reduced these processes dramatically. Purified TPPII digests peptides from 6 to 30 residues long at similar rates, but eliminating TPPII in cells reduced the processing of long antigenic precursors (14-17 residues) more than short ones (9-12 residues). Therefore, TPPII appears to be the major peptidase capable of processing proteasome products longer than 14 residues. However, proteasomes in vivo (like purified proteasomes) release relatively few such peptides, and these peptides processed by TPPII require further trimming in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by ER aminopeptidase 1 for presentation. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that TPPII plays a specialized role in Ag processing and one that is not essential for the generation of most presented peptides. Moreover, these findings reveal that three sequential proteolytic steps (by proteasomes, TPPII, and then ER aminopepsidase 1) are required for the generation of a subset of epitopes.

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    ABSTRACT: Tripeptidyl peptidase II is the largest known eukaryotic peptidase. It has been described as a multi-purpose peptidase, which, in addition to its house-keeping function in intracellular protein degradation, plays a role in several vital cellular processes such as antigen processing, apoptosis, or cell division, and is involved in diseases like muscle wasting, obesity, and in cancer. Biochemical studies and bioinformatics have identified TPPII as a subtilase, but its structure is very unusual: it forms a large homooligomeric complex (6 MDa) with a spindle-like shape. Recently, the high-resolution structure of TPPII homodimers (300 kDa) was solved and a hybrid structure of the holocomplex built of 20 dimers was obtained by docking it into the EM-density. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about TPPII with a focus on structural aspects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis 50 years after the discovery of lysosome.
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    ABSTRACT: The tripeptidyl-peptidase II complex consists of repeated 138 kDa subunits, assembled into two twisted strands that form a high molecular weight complex (>5 MDa). TPPII, like many other cytosolic peptidases, plays a role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway downstream of the proteasome as well as in the production and destruction of MHC class I antigens and degradation of neuropeptides. Tripeptidyl-peptidase II activity is increased in cells with an increased demand for protein degradation, but whether degradation of cytosolic peptides is the only cell biological role for TPPII has remained unclear. Recent data indicated that TPPII translocates into the nucleus to control DNA damage responses in malignant cells, supporting that cytosolic "housekeeping peptidases" may have additional roles in cell biology, besides their contribution to protein turnover. Overall, TPPII has an emerging importance in several cancer-related fields, such as metabolism, cell death control, and control of genome integrity; roles that are not understood in detail. The present paper reviews the cell biology of TPPII and discusses distinct roles for TPPII in the nucleus and cytosol.
    Journal of Oncology 08/2010; 2010. DOI:10.1155/2010/128478
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    ABSTRACT: Tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) is a serine peptidase highly expressed in malignant Burkitt's lymphoma cells (BL). We have previously shown that overexpression of TPPII correlates with chromosomal instability, centrosomal and mitotic spindle abnormalities and resistance to apoptosis induced by spindle poisons. Furthermore, TPPII knockdown by RNAi was associated with endoreplication and the accumulation of polynucleated cells that failed to complete cell division, indicating a role of TPPII in the cell cycle. Here we have applied a global approach of gene expression analysis to gain insights on the mechanism by which TPPII regulates this phenotype. mRNA profiling of control and TPPII knockdown BL cells identified one hundred and eighty five differentially expressed genes. Functional categorization of these genes highlighted major physiological functions such as apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cytoskeleton remodeling, proteolysis, and signal transduction. Pathways and protein interactome analysis revealed a significant enrichment in components of MAP kinases signaling. These findings suggest that TPPII influences a wide network of signaling pathways that are regulated by MAPKs and exerts thereby a pleiotropic effect on biological processes associated with cell survival, proliferation and genomic instability.
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