Cow's Milk and Linear Growth in Industrialized and Developing Countries

Department of Human Nutrition and Center for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
Annual Review of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 8.36). 02/2006; 26(1):131-73. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.26.010506.103757
Source: PubMed


The strongest evidence that cow's milk stimulates linear growth comes from observational and intervention studies in developing countries that show considerable effects. Additionally, many observational studies from well-nourished populations also show an association between milk intake and growth. These results suggest that milk has a growth-stimulating effect even in situations where the nutrient intake is adequate. This effect is supported by studies that show milk intake stimulates circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, which suggests that at least part of the growth-stimulating effects of milk occur through the stimulation of IGFs. Given that the biological purpose of milk is to support the newborn during a period of high growth velocity, such an effect seems plausible. Adding cow's milk to the diet of stunted children is likely to improve linear growth and thereby reduce morbidity. In well-nourished children, the long-term consequences of an increased consumption of cow's milk, which may lead to higher levels of IGF-I in circulation or an increase in the velocity of linear growth, are likely to be both positive and negative. Based on emerging data that suggest both growth and diet during early life program the IGF axis, the association between milk intake and later health is likely to be complex.

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    • "The link between accelerated growth and cow's milk consumption is well established in children (Hoppe et al., 2006; Thorsdottir & Thorisdottir, 2011). Here we report that volumes of the cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter are proportionally related to milk and dairy consumption in healthy young adults. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between habitual milk and dairy consumption and brain morphology as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations in 119 young healthy university students. MRI measurements were performed on a Siemens Magnetom Trio Tim (3T) system while FreeSurfer software suite was used for volumetric segmentation. Dietary habits related to milk and dairy consumption were assessed by a structured questionnaire. Total cerebral cortex, total cerebral white matter, and total cerebral parenchyma were significantly related with cottage cheese and total protein intake from milk and dairy also when controlled for age and gender in the multivariate model. Our results indicate that dietary habits related with milk and dairy are proportionally associated with volumes of both cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/09637486.2015.1093609 · 1.21 Impact Factor
    • "Several studies also acknowledge the contribution of animal source foods (ASF) to the micronutrient status, growth and cognitive functions of children in modern diets (Neumann et al. 2002; Allen 2003; Murphy and Allen 2003). Various studies have established linear associations between milk consumption and the growth of children worldwide (Fratkin et al. 2004; Hoppe et al. 2006; Moore et al. 2008). However, low accessibility and availability often restrict ASF consumption by the poor. "
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    ABSTRACT: Livestock forms an integral part and contributes in multiple ways to the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in the crop-livestock systems of Ethiopia. This study presents empirical evidence of the relative importance of the consumption of dairy products to family nutrition and factors underlying differences among farm households. Cattle owning households (n=270) and their under-5-year-old children (n=225) were sampled for this study. Multiple approaches were applied for data collection, including a cross-sectional survey, in-depth household monitoring, a dietary diversity survey and anthropometric measurements of children. Household dietary diversity scores were low (4.6±1.3), mainly comprising maize, Enset, green kales and milk products. The consumption of non-dairy Animal Source Foods (ASF: beef, mutton, chicken meat, eggs and fish) was low, intermittent and peaked during major religious or social festivities. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) revealed substantial associations between anthropometric indices of children and socioeconomic status of their parents. Specifically, predictors assigned the greatest weights, in descending order, were per capita farmland size, family size, access to clean water, crop diversity, dependency ratio, livestock holding, cash income, literacy of household head, distance to public health centres, and volume of milk available in the households. Although cow milk was identified as an important food item for children, their nutritional status was influenced by manifold factors that affect their dietary quality, health and care. Therefore, holistic approaches that embrace effective coordination among different economic sectors - notably agriculture, public health education and provision of clean water are required to achieve food and nutritional security among farming households.
    Food Security 08/2015; 7(5). DOI:10.1007/s12571-015-0487-0 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    • "Historical evidence indicates that the nations which used to obtain highest calories from milk and milk products were more civilized and capable of having sound administration and such societies enjoy almost complete freedom from nutritional disease. In contrast, the poorly or underdeveloped areas of the world have a primitive or non-existent milk supply and have numerous inhabitants suffering from nutritional deficiency, especially infants and children (Hoppe et al., 2006). No doubt, milk is a perishable commodity and is likely to be spoiled during summer season when weather becomes very hot (Tipu et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was designed to screen the various adulterants in the market milk sold in the coastal area of Sindh province during the year 2014. A total of 100 milk samples were collected each of twenty (n= 20) from milk producers, milk collectors, middlemen, processors and dairy shops at the vicinity of Badin brought in the Department of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan. Among all milk samples water (76%) was the common adulterant found to be in the majority of milk samples evaluated in present study, followed by detergent (25%), rice flour (22 %), caustic soda (18%), salt (17%) and cane sugar (14%), respectively. The extent of extraneous water in milk samples collected from dairy shops, middlemen and milk collectors was significantly (P˂0.05) high than that of samples collected from processor and milk producer. The proportion of adulteration at all the milk intermediaries was (P˃0.05) non significant. The pH value of all milk samples collected from different marketing channels was significantly (P˂0.05) different from each other except in samples collected from dairy shops and middlemen. Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in freezing point of milk samples collected from all milk marketing channels. The specific gravity of milk samples collected from all milk marketing channels was found to be significant (P<0.05) with each other.
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