Cow's Milk and Linear Growth in Industrialized and Developing Countries

Department of Human Nutrition and Center for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
Annual Review of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 8.36). 02/2006; 26(1):131-73. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.26.010506.103757
Source: PubMed


The strongest evidence that cow's milk stimulates linear growth comes from observational and intervention studies in developing countries that show considerable effects. Additionally, many observational studies from well-nourished populations also show an association between milk intake and growth. These results suggest that milk has a growth-stimulating effect even in situations where the nutrient intake is adequate. This effect is supported by studies that show milk intake stimulates circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, which suggests that at least part of the growth-stimulating effects of milk occur through the stimulation of IGFs. Given that the biological purpose of milk is to support the newborn during a period of high growth velocity, such an effect seems plausible. Adding cow's milk to the diet of stunted children is likely to improve linear growth and thereby reduce morbidity. In well-nourished children, the long-term consequences of an increased consumption of cow's milk, which may lead to higher levels of IGF-I in circulation or an increase in the velocity of linear growth, are likely to be both positive and negative. Based on emerging data that suggest both growth and diet during early life program the IGF axis, the association between milk intake and later health is likely to be complex.

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    • "Several studies also acknowledge the contribution of animal source foods (ASF) to the micronutrient status, growth and cognitive functions of children in modern diets (Neumann et al. 2002; Allen 2003; Murphy and Allen 2003). Various studies have established linear associations between milk consumption and the growth of children worldwide (Fratkin et al. 2004; Hoppe et al. 2006; Moore et al. 2008). However, low accessibility and availability often restrict ASF consumption by the poor. "
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    ABSTRACT: Livestock forms an integral part and contributes in multiple ways to the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in the crop-livestock systems of Ethiopia. This study presents empirical evidence of the relative importance of the consumption of dairy products to family nutrition and factors underlying differences among farm households. Cattle owning households (n=270) and their under-5-year-old children (n=225) were sampled for this study. Multiple approaches were applied for data collection, including a cross-sectional survey, in-depth household monitoring, a dietary diversity survey and anthropometric measurements of children. Household dietary diversity scores were low (4.6±1.3), mainly comprising maize, Enset, green kales and milk products. The consumption of non-dairy Animal Source Foods (ASF: beef, mutton, chicken meat, eggs and fish) was low, intermittent and peaked during major religious or social festivities. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) revealed substantial associations between anthropometric indices of children and socioeconomic status of their parents. Specifically, predictors assigned the greatest weights, in descending order, were per capita farmland size, family size, access to clean water, crop diversity, dependency ratio, livestock holding, cash income, literacy of household head, distance to public health centres, and volume of milk available in the households. Although cow milk was identified as an important food item for children, their nutritional status was influenced by manifold factors that affect their dietary quality, health and care. Therefore, holistic approaches that embrace effective coordination among different economic sectors - notably agriculture, public health education and provision of clean water are required to achieve food and nutritional security among farming households.
    Food Security 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12571-015-0487-0 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    • "Historical evidence indicates that the nations which used to obtain highest calories from milk and milk products were more civilized and capable of having sound administration and such societies enjoy almost complete freedom from nutritional disease. In contrast, the poorly or underdeveloped areas of the world have a primitive or non-existent milk supply and have numerous inhabitants suffering from nutritional deficiency, especially infants and children (Hoppe et al., 2006). No doubt, milk is a perishable commodity and is likely to be spoiled during summer season when weather becomes very hot (Tipu et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was designed to screen the various adulterants in the market milk sold in the coastal area of Sindh province during the year 2014. A total of 100 milk samples were collected each of twenty (n= 20) from milk producers, milk collectors, middlemen, processors and dairy shops at the vicinity of Badin brought in the Department of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan. Among all milk samples water (76%) was the common adulterant found to be in the majority of milk samples evaluated in present study, followed by detergent (25%), rice flour (22 %), caustic soda (18%), salt (17%) and cane sugar (14%), respectively. The extent of extraneous water in milk samples collected from dairy shops, middlemen and milk collectors was significantly (P˂0.05) high than that of samples collected from processor and milk producer. The proportion of adulteration at all the milk intermediaries was (P˃0.05) non significant. The pH value of all milk samples collected from different marketing channels was significantly (P˂0.05) different from each other except in samples collected from dairy shops and middlemen. Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in freezing point of milk samples collected from all milk marketing channels. The specific gravity of milk samples collected from all milk marketing channels was found to be significant (P<0.05) with each other.
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    • "This further supports our view that insufficient milk intake is a contributing factor to the high levels of stunting in this community . Cow's milk has been shown to affect linear growth [33] [34], probably via stimulation of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) [33]. Milk intake was also positively associated with the height of preschool children from the 1999 to 2002 United States NHANES survey [35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional factors associated with the high levels of stunting in 2- to 5-y-old children in an impoverished South African setting where liver is frequently eaten and vitamin A deficiency known to be absent. Children's dietary intake was assessed by a single 24-h recall. Heights and weights were measured and information was obtained on breast-feeding history, the child's habitual milk intake, as well as substance use by the mother during pregnancy (n = 150). The overall prevalence of stunting was 36.9% (CI 29.2, 44.6) and increased with age, being 49% in the 4- to 5-y-old age category. Birth weight correlated significantly with height-for-age z-scores (HAZ; r = 0.250, P = 0.003), and was lower in children whose mothers smoked and used alcohol during pregnancy than in children whose mothers abstained (P < 0.0001). Median intake of energy, carbohydrate and protein was adequate. Median intake for all micronutrients was at least 90% of the estimated average requirement, except for calcium, vitamin D and vitamin E, which was 21%, 15%, and 32%, respectively. Intake of fat, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 (nutrients that typically occur in milk) was significantly lower in stunted than in non-stunted children (P < 0.05). When excluding children with low birth weight, intake of calcium, vitamin D, and riboflavin were still significantly lower (P < 0.05). HAZ was higher in children who habitually drank milk compared to those who did not (P = 0.003). Inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake, presumably because of low intake of milk after weaning, may have contributed to stunting in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition 12/2014; 31(6). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2014.12.011 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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