Inverse Gas Chromatographic Evaluation of the Influence of Soy Protein on the Binding of Selected Butter Flavor Compounds in a Wheat Soda Cracker System
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1302 West Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 08/2006; 54(15):5516-20. DOI: 10.1021/jf060538+
Binding of selected volatile butter flavor compounds to wheat vs soy-containing crackers was studied by inverse gas chromatography (IGC), sensory evaluation, and equilibrium sorption measurements. IGC data showed greater binding of gamma-butyrolactone and butyric acid to both types of crackers than either diacetyl or hexanal, possibly due to the involvement of stronger binding forces such as hydrogen bonding and even ionic forces in the case of butyric acid. The presence of soy proteins did not affect binding of diacetyl and hexanal but increased binding of strongly interacting compounds gamma-butyrolactone and especially butyric acid, probably through enhanced matrix polarity. In agreement with the IGC data, sensory evaluation results showed that the headspace aroma intensities were similar between the two diacetyl-flavored crackers, while they significantly differed between the butyric acid-flavored crackers. In addition, equilibrium sorption measurement data showed that binding of butyric acid was higher in the soy-containing cracker, but sorption of diacetyl to the two crackers did not significantly differ.
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ABSTRACT: Symptoms of uncontrolled celiac disease impair patients' health-related quality of life, which improves with the exclusion of gluten from the diet. A symptom frequently reported, but difficult to make objective, is fatigue. The Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS) questionnaire consisting of 8 items, each scored on a 0 to 4 point scale, with lower scores reflecting greater fatigue, was employed to measure fatigue in celiac patients. To assess the influence of fatigue on perception of health in celiac disease patients determined as their quality of life. Prospective, cross-sectional study in celiac disease patients diagnosed by serology and histology. Instruments used were the D-FIS to measure fatigue and the generic EuroQol5D to measure quality of life. An additional question on the frequency of problems due to fatigue, scored on a 7-point Likert scale, was used to evaluate the importance of fatigue. RESULTS (IN MEDIANS): In all, 51 patients were included (13 untreated and 38 treated with a gluten-free diet). D-FIS score was significantly worse in untreated celiacs (16.0 vs. 3.0, P<0.001). Scores on the frequency scale of fatigue-related problems were also worse in untreated celiacs (2.0 vs. 6.0, P<0.001). Fatigue and quality-of-life scores were inversely correlated (r=-0.6, P<0.001). Fatigue severity was also greater in patients with worse quality of life (13.0 vs. 2.0, P<0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed fatigue to be an independent determinant of quality of life. Fatigue is a major concern in untreated celiac disease patients, which impacts their quality of life.Journal of clinical gastroenterology 11/2009; 44(6):423-7. DOI:10.1097/MCG.0b013e3181c41d12 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although many researchers have studied potential ways to deliver soy in novel forms, little is known about specific sensory attributes associated with soy snacks, or how those attributes drive liking for consumers. The first objective of this study was to use sensory descriptive analysis to characterize 9 extruded soy snacks with varying soy levels and soy grits contents. A total of 12 trained panelists used a descriptive analysis method to evaluate the snacks and found 14 attributes to be significantly different across the samples. Furthermore, it is not known how preferences of Indian snack consumers living in the United States and India may vary for sensory attributes of soy snacks. The 2nd objective was to correlate descriptive profiling data and previously collected consumer data to construct preference maps illustrating consumers' attitudes toward the snacks. Results indicate that consumers generally accept samples characterized by attributes such as crunchy, cumin, curry, salty, and umami, but dislike samples with wheat, rough, or porous attributes. Indian consumers differed from the U.S. consumers in that their preferences were more varied, and they tended to be more tolerant of wheat and porous attributes. Therefore, different strategies should be utilized when developing products for these groups to cater to their specific inclinations.Journal of Food Science 08/2010; 75(6):S292-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01672.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of enzymatic deamidation by protein-glutaminase (PG) on protein solubility and flavor binding potential of soymilk was studied. Treatment of soymilk with PG for 2 h (temperature of 44 °C and enzyme:substrate ratio (E/S) of 40 U/g protein) resulted in high degree of protein deamidation (66.4% DD) and relatively low degree of protein hydrolysis (4.25% DH). Deamidated (DSM) and control soymilks (CSM) did not differ with respect to aroma, but differed in taste characteristics by sensory evaluation. Protein solubility in DSM was enhanced at weakly acidic conditions (pH 5.0), but did not differ from non-deamidated soymilk at pH values of 3.0 and 7.0. Odor detection thresholds for the flavor compounds vanillin and maltol were approximately 5 and 3 fold lower, respectively, in DSM than in CSM. Dose-response curves (Fechner's law plots and n exponents from Stevens's power law) further demonstrated that DSM had a lower flavor binding potential than CSM. PG deamidation has the potential to reduce flavor binding problems encountered in high protein-containing foods and beverages. Practical Application: The findings of this study can help lead to the development of technology to produce protein-containing foods with improved functional properties, especially protein solubility, and potentially decreased flavor fade problems associated with flavor-protein interactions, especially with carbonyl containing flavor compounds.Journal of Food Science 12/2012; 78(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.03012.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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