Association between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and condiments and excretion in urine of isothiocyanate mercapturic acids.
ABSTRACT A high intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This protective effect has been linked to isothiocyanates, enzymatic hydrolysis products of glucosinolates. In this study, the metabolic fate of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates after ingestion of 19 different cruciferous vegetables was studied in three male subjects. After the consumption of 13 cruciferous vegetables (glucosinolate content, 0.01-0.94 mmol/kg) and six condiments (isothiocyanate content, 0.06-49.3 mmol/kg), eight different isothiocyanate mercapturic acids were determined in urine samples. Excretion levels after the consumption of raw vegetables and condiments were higher (bioavailability, 8.2-113%) as compared to cooked vegetables (bioavailability, 1.8-43%), but the excretion rate was similar (t1/2=2.1-3.9 h). Isothiocyanates in urine remain longer at a nonzero level after the consumption of glucosinolates from cooked vegetables, as compared to raw vegetables and condiments, and maximal levels in urine were reached about 4 h later. Isothiocyanate mercapturic acids can be used as a biomarker to reflect the active dose of isothiocyanates absorbed.
- SourceAvailable from: Shikha Saha
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ABSTRACT: Several SPE sorbents were investigated for the extraction of a group of chemically diverse isothiocyanates (ITCs). They included bonded silica, carbon-based, and polymer-based sorbents with various functional groups. Results showed large differences in the ability of these sorbents to simultaneously extract ITCs from standard solutions. Recovery rates were on average the highest with divinylbenzene (DVB) based polymeric sorbents, especially with a DVB/N-vinylpyrrolidone copolymer that had recovery rates ranging between 86.7 and 95.6%. These sorbents achieved the most balanced extraction efficiency between aliphatic and aromatic, polar, and nonpolar ITCs. With graphitized carbon, C(18) -bonded silica, and amide-containing sorbent, recovery levels were higher for the two least polar aromatic ITCs (benzyl ITC and phenylethyl ITC), whereas for the polar aliphatic ITCs levels were the lowest. The least retained one, was methyl ITC that is the most polar with recoveries between 0 and 31.5%. The presence of amide groups, especially in a polyamide sorbent, appeared to be particularly unsuitable for the extraction of aliphatic ITCs. A copolymer made up of DVB and N-vinylpyrrolidone was therefore shown to be the most suited for the extraction of both aliphatic and aromatic ITCs.Journal of Separation Science 10/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SCOPE: Sulforaphane (a potent anticarcinogenic isothiocyanate derived from glucoraphanin) is widely considered responsible for the protective effects of broccoli consumption. Broccoli is typically purchased fresh or frozen and cooked before consumption. We compared the bioavailability and metabolism of sulforaphane from portions of lightly cooked fresh or frozen broccoli, and investigated the bioconversion of sulforaphane to erucin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen healthy volunteers consumed broccoli soups produced from fresh or frozen broccoli florets that had been lightly cooked and sulforaphane thio-conjugates quantified in plasma and urine. Sulforaphane bioavailability was about tenfold higher for the soups made from fresh compared to frozen broccoli, and the reduction was shown to be due to destruction of myrosinase activity by the commercial blanching-freezing process. Sulforaphane appeared in plasma and urine in its free form and as several thio-conjugates forms. Erucin N-acetyl-cysteine conjugate was a significant urinary metabolite, and it was shown that human gut microflora can produce sulforaphane, erucin, and their nitriles from glucoraphanin. CONCLUSION: The short period of blanching used to produce commercial frozen broccoli destroys myrosinase and substantially reduces sulforaphane bioavailability. Sulforaphane was converted to erucin and excreted in urine, and it was shown that human colonic flora were capable of this conversion.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 10/2012; · 4.31 Impact Factor