Detection of tumor cells in body cavity fluids by flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analysis.

Department of Pathology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.
Diagnostic Cytopathology (Impact Factor: 1.52). 08/2006; 34(8):528-41. DOI: 10.1002/dc.20496
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Measurement of electronic volume versus DNA content of nuclei can be used to discriminate between normal and malignant cells. Epithelial membrane antigen immunocytochemistry (EMA-ICC), a helpful ancillary test in body cavity fluids, is not universally accurate for detecting malignancy in effusions. The current study was undertaken to determine if multiparametric flow cytometry (based on simultaneous analysis of light scatter, nuclear volume, DNA, and nuclear protein content) in combination with (EMA-ICC) could be used for the detection of malignant cells in peritoneal and pleural fluids. We studied 130 body cavity fluids (68 peritoneal and 62 pleural fluids) by conventional cytology and multiparametric laser flow cytometry. EMA-ICC was performed using EMA antibodies and L-SAB detection system (DakoCytomation, Carpinteria, CA). EMA-ICC had significantly higher sensitivity than conventional cytology (79% versus 59%, P = 0.016) and ploidy (79% versus 38%, P = 0.001). Cytology had significantly higher specificity than ploidy (97% versus 82%, P = 0.012). The differences in specificity between EMA-ICC and ploidy (87% versus 82%, P= 0.607) or EMA-ICC and cytology (87% versus 97%, P = 0.109) were not statistically significant. However, assuming serial testing, sensitivity increased significantly for the combinations of cytology and EMA-ICC (79.4%, P = 0.016) and cytology and ploidy (73.5%, P = 0.004) as compared to cytology alone (58.8%). Also, the combination of cytology and ploidy had a higher sensitivity than ploidy alone (73% versus 38%, P < 0.0001). However, the sensitivity associated with the three tests used in serial (85.3%) was not significantly different from the sensitivities corresponding to the combination of cytology and EMA-ICC (79%) or cytology and ploidy (73%). Multiparametric flow cytometry utilizing high resolution DNA, nuclear volume, protein measurement, and ICC, in combination with cytomorphology, may be a valuable tool for rapid identification of malignant cells in body cavity fluids.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic evaluation of fluid specimens, including serous effusions and cerebrospinal fluids (CSFs), can be challenging for a number of reasons. The evaluation of lymphoid proliferations in these specimens can be particularly problematic, given the frequent presence of coexisting inflammatory conditions and the manner in which these specimens are processed. As a result, immunophenotypic analysis of hematopoietic cell populations by flow cytometry has emerged as a useful ancillary study in the diagnosis of these specimens, both in patients with and without a previous history of a lymphoproliferative disorder. In this study, we review our experience with flow cytometry in fluid specimens over a four-year period. Flow cytometry was performed in 184 of 6,925 total cases (2.7% of all fluids). Flow cytometry was performed in 4.8% of pleural fluids (positive findings in 38%, negative in 40%, and atypical in 18%), 1.1% of peritoneal fluids (positive in 40%, negative in 50%, and atypical in 10%), 1.9% of pericardial fluids (positive in 67%, negative in 33%), and 1.9% of CSFs (positive in 23%, negative in 55%, atypical in 3%). The specimen submitted was inadequate for analysis in 9.2% of cases, most commonly with CSF specimens, but was not related to the volume of fluid submitted. Atypical flow cytometry findings and atypical morphologic findings in the context of negative flow cytometry results led to the definitive diagnosis of a lymphoproliferative disorder in a significant number of cases when repeat procedures and ancillary studies were performed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Diagnostic Cytopathology 08/2014; 42(8). DOI:10.1002/dc.23106 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:The aim of this study was to evaluate a flow cytometric assay for the detection of malignant effusions.Methods:During the last 4-year period, 125 effusions suspicious for malignancy were prospectively analyzed by flow cytometry and conventional cytology. A three-step flow cytometric assay was performed, beginning with an initial informative panel of two protocols, containing SYTO-16, 7-AAD, CD71-PE, CD45-ECD, and CD66abce-FITC, CD64-PE, CD45-ECD, CD16-PECy5, CD14-PECy7, respectively. This was followed by a basic immunophenotypic panel of seven three-color combinations, containing in the first position, EMA, Ber-EP4, CD66abce, CD56, and intracellular desmin-33, combined with CD71-PE and CD45-PeCy5 in each tube. Finally, a cytokeratin-FITC/propidium iodide DNA panel was conducted, for the detection of aneuploidy in cytokeratin positive cells.Results:The sensitivity and specificity of flow cytometry were 85.1 and 97.8%, and of cytology 93.2 and 95.6%, respectively. A significant association was observed between the results of the two techniques (P < 0.001). Among eight atypical cases detected by cytology, five had been precisely characterized as malignant by flow cytometry. EMA and Ber-EP4 proved the most sensitive markers for malignancy diagnosis, while the detection of desmin-33 negative/cytokeratin positive cells had the simultaneous highest positive and negative predictive values. CD66abce was very specific, although nonsensitive, while DNA ploidy analysis was nonspecific, as hyperploidy was observed in reactive mesothelial cells.Conclusions:A flow cytometric assay of high sensitivity and specificity is proposed for the routine identification of carcinoma cells in effusions and their distinction from atypical mesothelial cells, as an ancillary to conventional cytology. © 2011 International Clinical Cytometry Society
    Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry 09/2011; 80B(5):324 - 334. DOI:10.1002/cyto.b.20608 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Conventional cytological examination has limited sensitivity for detecting tumor cells in serous body cavity effusions and therefore, adjuvant techniques are necessary for a reliable diagnosis. Flow cytometry has proven benefit in these circumstances. The aim of our study was to explore the feasibility of CELL-DYN Sapphire, an advanced hematology analyzer with flow cytometric capabilities, for detecting tumor cells in serous body fluids, using CD326 monoclonal antibodies, which are directed against the epithelial marker EpCAM. Methods: One hundred and five serous fluids (39 peritoneal and 66 pleural effusions) were analyzed by the CELL-DYN Sapphire using monoclonal antibody combinations CD3/CD19 and CD45/CD326. Of all samples a cytospin preparation was made and microscopically examined; the pathology findings served as a reference. Results: Using a threshold of 1% CD326+ cells, CELL-DYN Sapphire identified nine out of 12 cases with tumor cells in the serous effusions (sensitivity 75%), whereas routine cytology found eight cases (sensitivity 67%). The combination of immunophenotyping and cytology identified all 12 cases with tumor cells in the effusion fluid (sensitivity 100%). The specificities were 92% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: We demonstrated that it is feasible to run an immunophenotypic assay on CELL-DYN Sapphire for detecting tumor cells in serous body fluids. In addition, this study confirmed that a combination of conventional cytology and flow cytometry had a very high diagnostic yield in cases of carcinomatous effusions.
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 10/2013; 52(2):1-6. DOI:10.1515/cclm-2013-0333 · 2.96 Impact Factor