Antagonism of endogenous putative P2Y receptors reduces the growth of MDCK-derived cysts cultured in vitro.
ABSTRACT P2Y receptors couple to G proteins and either mobilize intracellular Ca(2+) or alter cAMP levels to modulate the activity of Ca(2+)- and cAMP-sensitive ion channels. We hypothesize that increased ion transport into the lumen of MDCK cysts can osmotically drive fluid movement and increase cyst size. Furthermore, activation of the adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway may trigger cell proliferation via an extracellular signal-related kinase cascade. To test this hypothesis, several P2Y receptor inhibitors were used on the MDCK in vitro model of renal cyst formation. The nonspecific P2 receptor inhibitors reactive blue 2 and suramin reduced cyst growth significantly, as did PPADS and, to a lesser extent, the P2Y(1)-specific antagonist MRS2179. Cyst growth was reduced by approximately 50% when ATP was removed from the culture medium with apyrase, although stable analogs of ATP failed to increase cyst size. The nonselective P2X receptor inhibitor Coomassie brilliant blue G was ineffective at reducing cyst growth, suggesting no involvement of P2X receptors. Finally, the presence of selective inhibitors of ERK activation (either PD98059 or U0126) greatly reduced cyst growth, whereas in untreated cysts ERK activity was observed to increase with time. We conclude that stimulation of endogenous P2Y receptors by extracellular ATP increases growth of MDCK cysts via cAMP-dependent activation of the ERK pathway. P2Y receptor antagonists may have therapeutic potential in reducing cyst size and slowing disease progression; although further studies in vitro and in vivo are needed to investigate the specificity and role of these P2Y receptors in renal cystic diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by numerous bilateral renal cysts that continuously enlarge and, through compression of intact nephrons, lead to a decline in kidney function over time. We previously showed that cyst enlargement is accompanied by regional hypoxia, which results in the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the cyst epithelium. Here we demonstrate a correlation between cyst size and the expression of the HIF-1α-target gene, glucose transporter 1, and report that HIF-1α promotes renal cyst growth in two in vitro cyst models-principal-like MDCK cells (plMDCKs) within a collagen matrix and cultured embryonic mouse kidneys stimulated with forskolin. In both models, augmenting HIF-1α levels with the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetate enhanced cyst growth. In addition, inhibition of HIF-1α degradation through tubule-specific knockdown of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor increased cyst size in the embryonic kidney cyst model. In contrast, inhibition of HIF-1α by chetomin and knockdown of HIF-1α both decreased cyst growth in these models. Consistent with previous reports, plMDCK cyst enlargement was driven largely by transepithelial chloride secretion, which consists, in part, of a calcium-activated chloride conductance. plMDCKs deficient for HIF-1α almost completely lacked calcium-activated chloride secretion. We conclude that regional hypoxia in renal cysts contributes to cyst growth, primarily due to HIF-1α-dependent calcium-activated chloride secretion. These findings identify the HIF system as a novel target for inhibition of cyst growth.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The involvement of purinergic signalling in kidney physiology and pathophysiology is rapidly gaining recognition and this is a comprehensive review of early and recent publications in the field. Purinergic signalling involvement is described in several important intrarenal regulatory mechanisms, including tuboglomerular feedback, the autoregulatory response of the glomerular and extraglomerular microcirculation and the control of renin release. Furthermore, purinergic signalling influences water and electrolyte transport in all segments of the renal tubule. Reports about purine- and pyrimidine-mediated actions in diseases of the kidney, including polycystic kidney disease, nephritis, diabetes, hypertension and nephrotoxicant injury are covered and possible purinergic therapeutic strategies discussed.Purinergic Signalling 11/2013; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of calcium-activated chloride channels for renal function is unknown. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrate dominant expression of the recently identified calcium-activated chloride channels, Anoctamin 1 (Ano1, TMEM16A) in human and mouse proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells, with some expression in podocytes and other tubular segments. Ano1-null mice had proteinuria and numerous large reabsorption vesicles in PTE cells. Selective knockout of Ano1 in podocytes (Ano1-/-/Nphs2-Cre) did not impair renal function, whereas tubular knockout in Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice increased urine protein excretion and decreased urine electrolyte concentrations. Purinergic stimulation activated calcium-dependent chloride currents in isolated proximal tubule epithelial cells from wild-type but not from Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice. Ano1 currents were activated by acidic pH, suggesting parallel stimulation of Ano1 chloride secretion with activation of the proton-ATPase. Lack of calcium-dependent chloride secretion in cells from Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice was paralleled by attenuated proton secretion and reduced endosomal acidification, which compromised proximal tubular albumin uptake. Tubular knockout of Ano1 enhanced serum renin and aldosterone concentrations, probably leading to enhanced compensatory distal tubular reabsorption, thus maintaining normal blood pressure levels. Thus, Ano1 has a role in proximal tubular proton secretion and protein reabsorption. The results correspond to regulation of the proton-ATPase by the Ano1-homolog Ist2 in yeast.Kidney International advance online publication, 29 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.535.Kidney International 01/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor