Antagonism of endogenous putative P2Y receptors reduces the growth of MDCK-derived cysts cultured in vitro.
ABSTRACT P2Y receptors couple to G proteins and either mobilize intracellular Ca(2+) or alter cAMP levels to modulate the activity of Ca(2+)- and cAMP-sensitive ion channels. We hypothesize that increased ion transport into the lumen of MDCK cysts can osmotically drive fluid movement and increase cyst size. Furthermore, activation of the adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway may trigger cell proliferation via an extracellular signal-related kinase cascade. To test this hypothesis, several P2Y receptor inhibitors were used on the MDCK in vitro model of renal cyst formation. The nonspecific P2 receptor inhibitors reactive blue 2 and suramin reduced cyst growth significantly, as did PPADS and, to a lesser extent, the P2Y(1)-specific antagonist MRS2179. Cyst growth was reduced by approximately 50% when ATP was removed from the culture medium with apyrase, although stable analogs of ATP failed to increase cyst size. The nonselective P2X receptor inhibitor Coomassie brilliant blue G was ineffective at reducing cyst growth, suggesting no involvement of P2X receptors. Finally, the presence of selective inhibitors of ERK activation (either PD98059 or U0126) greatly reduced cyst growth, whereas in untreated cysts ERK activity was observed to increase with time. We conclude that stimulation of endogenous P2Y receptors by extracellular ATP increases growth of MDCK cysts via cAMP-dependent activation of the ERK pathway. P2Y receptor antagonists may have therapeutic potential in reducing cyst size and slowing disease progression; although further studies in vitro and in vivo are needed to investigate the specificity and role of these P2Y receptors in renal cystic diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Polycystic kidney diseases (PKD) are a group of inherited ciliopathies in which the formation and growth of multiple cysts derived from the distal nephron and collecting duct leads to the disruption of normal kidney architecture, chronic interstitial inflammation/fibrosis and hypertension. Kidney failure is the most life-threatening complication of PKD, and is the consequence of cyst expansion, renal interstitial disease and loss of normal kidney tissue. Over the last decade, accumulating evidence suggests that the autocrine and paracrine effects of ATP (through its receptor family P2X and P2Y), could be detrimental for the progression of PKD. (2009). In vitro, ATP-P2 signaling promotes cystic epithelial cell proliferation, chloride-driven fluid secretion and apoptosis. Furthermore, dysfunction of the polycystin signal transduction pathways promotes the secretagogue activity of extracellular ATP by activating a calcium-activated chloride channel via purinergic receptors. Finally, ATP is a danger signal and could potentially contribute to interstitial inflammation associated with PKD. These data suggest that ATP-P2 signaling worsens the progression of cyst enlargement and interstitial inflammation in PKD.Frontiers in Physiology 01/2013; 4:218.
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ABSTRACT: Na,K-ATPase is a hetero-oligomer of an α- and a β-subunit. The α-subunit (Na,K-α) possesses the catalytic function whereas the β-subunit (Na,K-β) has cell-cell adhesion function and is localized to the apical junctional complex in polarized epithelial cells. Earlier, we identified two distinct conserved motifs on the Na,K-β(1) transmembrane domain that mediate protein-protein interactions: a glycine zipper motif involved in the cis homo-oligomerization of Na,K-β(1) and a heptad repeat motif that is involved in the hetero-oligomeric interaction with Na,K-α(1). We now provide evidence that knockdown of Na,K-β(1) prevents lumen formation and induces extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 activation mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in MDCK cells grown in 3 dimensional collagen cultures. These cells sustained cell proliferation in an ERK1/2 dependent manner and did not show contact inhibition at high cell densities revealed by parental MDCK cells. This phenotype could be rescued by wild-type Na,K-β(1) or heptad repeat motif mutant of Na,K-β(1) but not by the glycine zipper motif mutant that abrogates Na,K-β(1) cis homo-oligomerization. These studies suggest that Na,K-β(1) cis homo-oligomerization rather than hetero-oligomerization with Na,K-α(1) is involved in epithelial lumen formation. The relevance of these findings to pre-neoplastic lumen filling in epithelial cancer is discussed.Journal of Cell Science 10/2012; · 5.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: P2X ionotropic non-selective cation channels are expressed throughout the kidney and are activated in a paracrine or autocrine manner following the binding of extracellular ATP and related extracellular nucleotides. Whilst there is a wealth of literature describing a regulatory role of P2 receptors (P2R) in the kidney, there are significantly less data on the regulatory role of P2X receptors (P2XR) compared with that described for metabotropic P2Y. Much of the historical literature describing a role for P2XR in the kidney has focused heavily on the role of P2X1R in the autoregulation of renal blood flow. More recently, however, there has been a plethora of manuscripts providing compelling evidence for additional roles for P2XR in both kidney health and disease. This review summarizes the current evidence for the involvement of P2XR in the regulation of renal tubular and vascular function, and highlights the novel data describing their putative roles in regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes in the kidney.Frontiers in Physiology 01/2013; 4:262.