Single-cell cloning of human, donor-derived antileukemia T-cell lines for in vitro separation of graft-versus-leukemia effect from graft-versus-host reaction.

Department of Pediatrics, Laboratory of Immunology, University of Pavia, Italy.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 08/2006; 66(14):7310-6. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0591
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In previous studies, we showed the possibility of expanding in vitro polyclonal CTL lines directed against patient leukemia cells using effector cells derived from both HLA-matched and HLA-mismatched hematopoietic stem cell donors. Some CTL lines, especially those derived from an HLA-disparate donor, displayed residual alloreactivity against patient nonmalignant cells. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of separating in vitro CTLs with selective graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity from those potentially involved in the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) through single T-cell cloning of antileukemia polyclonal CTL lines. We showed that CTLs that were expanded from a single T-cell clone (TCC), able to selectively kill leukemia blasts and devoid of alloreactivity towards nonmalignant cells, can be obtained from antileukemia alloreactive polyclonal CTL lines. TCCs expressed a wide repertoire of different T-cell receptor (TCR)-Vbeta families, mainly produced IFNgamma and interleukin 2, irrespective of CD8 or CD4 phenotype, and could be extensively expanded in vitro without losing their peculiar functional features. The feasibility of our approach for in vitro separation of GVL from GVH reaction opens perspectives for using TCCs, which are selectively reactive towards leukemia blasts, for antileukemia adoptive immune therapy approaches after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in particular from HLA-mismatched donors.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients who relapse after transplantation have few therapeutic options. An immunotherapeutic approach that enhances the graft versus leukemia effect may improve their survival. We postulate that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated from total RNA loaded cord blood CD34+-derived dendritic cells can control the kinetics of leukemic growth in a nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mouse model of human ALL. CD34+-derived dendritic cells electroporated with total RNA from an ALL xenograft generate antileukemic CTL with specificity for the ALL xenograft while sparing autologous cord blood mononuclear cells. The CD3+ T-cell compartment of the CTL was dominated by CD4+ T cells, although CD8+ T cells accounted for an average of 30% of the CD3+ T cells present. Expansion of both CD4+ and CD8+ memory and terminal effector memory subsets from predominantly naive cells was evident. Natural killer (NK) cells accounted for an average of 13% of the final antitumor lymphoid cells produced. Blocking experiments confirmed that the CD8+ T-cell compartment was responsible for the antileukemic activity of the polyclonal CTL pool. Administration of antileukemic CTL to NOD-SCID mice bearing ALL xenograft cells was able to delay, but not prevent the growth of ALL in vivo. Coadministration of antigen-loaded antigen-presenting cells did not further improve upon the delay in ALL engraftment kinetics observed with CTL alone. The efficacy of adoptively transferred polyclonal CTL can be improved with coadministration of recombinant human interleukin-2. However, in NOD-SCID mice, the efficacy of these adoptively transferred cells is masked by interleukin-2 stimulation of murine NK cells, which facilitate killing of ALL cells. Our data highlights the role for NK cells in antileukemic responses posttransplant. Collectively, our results support the notion that ALL-specific adoptive immunotherapy could be used clinically and provide an alternative strategy for preventing and treating disease relapse posttransplant and that the success of this therapy is likely to be maximized if given in the setting of minimal residual disease.
    Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md.: 1997) 05/2011; 34(4):362-71. · 3.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A case of leukemia escape from an HLA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in a recipient of bone marrow transplantation is presented. Only the expression of HLA-B51, which was a mismatched HLA locus in the graft-versus-host direction, was down-regulated in post-transplant leukemia blasts compared with that in pre-transplant blasts. All CTL clones, that were isolated from the recipient's blood when acute graft-versus-host disease developed, recognized the mismatched B(∗)51:01 molecule in a peptide-dependent manner. The pre-transplant leukemia blasts were lysed by CTL clones, whereas the post-transplant leukemia blasts were not lysed by any CTL clones. The IFN-γ ELISPOT assay revealed that B(∗)51:01-reactive T lymphocytes accounted for the majority of the total alloreactive T lymphocytes in the blood just before leukemia relapse. These data suggest that immune escape of leukemia blasts from CTL pressure toward a certain HLA molecule can lead to clinical relapse after bone marrow transplantation.
    Cellular Immunology 04/2012; 276(1-2):75-82. · 1.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical family donor (haplo-HSCT) is a readily available and potentially curative option for high-risk leukemia. In haplo-HSCT, alloreactivity plays a major role in the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect, which, however, is frequently followed by relapse due to emerging leukemic cell variants that have lost the unshared HLA haplotype as a mechanism of immune escape. We report that stimulation of HLA-haploidentical donor T lymphocytes with leukemic antigen-presenting cells (L-APCs) expands a population of leukemia-reactive T cells, which, besides alloreactivity to unshared HLAs, contain leukemia-associated specificities restricted by shared HLAs. According to a preferential central-memory (T(CM)) phenotype and to high interleukin (IL)-7Rα expression, these T cells persist in vivo and sustain a major GVL effect in a clinically relevant xenograft model. Moreover, we demonstrate that modifying L-APC-expanded T cells to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) suicide gene enables their elimination with the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV), therefore providing a safety switch in case of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). These results warrant the clinical investigation of L-APC-expanded T cells modified with a suicide gene in the setting of haplo-HSCT.Molecular Therapy (2012); doi:10.1038/mt.2012.227.
    Molecular Therapy 11/2012; · 6.43 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jul 3, 2014