Guo H, Miao H, Gerber L, Singh J, Denning MF, Gilliam AC, Wang BDisruption of EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase leads to increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Cancer Res 66: 7050-7058

Rammelkamp Center for Education and Research, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 08/2006; 66(14):7050-8. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0004
Source: PubMed


EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is frequently overexpressed in different human cancers, suggesting that it may promote tumor development and progression. However, evidence also exists that EphA2 may possess antitumorigenic properties, raising a critical question on the role of EphA2 kinase in tumorigenesis in vivo. We report here that deletion of EphA2 in mouse led to markedly enhanced susceptibility to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA/TPA) two-stage skin carcinogenesis. EphA2-null mice developed skin tumors with an increased frequency and shortened latency. Moreover, tumors in homozygous knockout mice grew faster and were twice as likely to show invasive malignant progression. Haploinsufficiency of EphA2 caused an intermediate phenotype in tumor development but had little effects on invasive progression. EphA2 and ephrin-A1 exhibited compartmentalized expression pattern in mouse skin that localized EphA2/ephrin-A1 interactions to the basal layer of epidermis, which was disrupted in tumors. Loss of EphA2 increased tumor cell proliferation, whereas apoptosis was not affected. In vitro, treatment of primary keratinocytes from wild-type mice with ephrin-A1 suppressed cell proliferation and inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activities. Both effects were abolished in EphA2-null keratinocytes, suggesting that loss of ERK inhibition by EphA2 may be one of the contributing mechanisms for increased tumor susceptibility. Interestingly, despite its tumor suppressive function, EphA2 was overexpressed in skin tumors compared with surrounding normal skin in wild-type mice, similar to the observations in human cancers. EphA2 overexpression may represent a compensatory feedback mechanism during tumorigenesis. Together, these results show that EphA2 is a novel tumor suppressor gene in mammalian skin.

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    • "Furthermore, EphA2 has also been shown to be a target gene for p53 family of proteins and it causes apoptosis when overexpressed [87]. Recent data supporting a tumor suppressor role of EphA2 include the demonstration that EphA2 is a key mediator of UV-induced apoptosis independent of p53 [88], and the dramatically increase insusceptibility to skin carcinogenesis in EphA2 KO mice [89]. Our current studies show a significant downregulation of EphA2 in the metastatic cells and future studies to determine how EphA2 may contribute to the progression of prostate cancer. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease, ranging from indolent asymptomatic disease to very aggressive metastatic and life threatening forms of the disease. Distant metastasis represents the major lethal cause of prostate cancer. The most critical clinical challenge in the management of the patients is identifying those individuals at risk of developing metastatic disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis and identify markers with metastatic potential, we have analyzed protein expression in two syngeneic prostate cancer cells lines PC3-N2 and PC3-ML2 using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and multi-dimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography matrix assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry. PC3-N2 is lowly metastatic while PC3-ML2 highly metastatic. A total of 1,756 proteins were identified in the analyses with 130 proteins showing different expression levels (p<0.01) in the two cell lines. Out of these, 68 proteins were found to be significantly up-regulated while 62 are significantly down-regulated in PC3-ML2 cells compared with PC3-N2 cells. The upregulation of plectin and vimentin which were the most significantly differentially expressed were validated by Western blot and their functional relevance with respect to invasion and migration was determined by siRNA gene silencing. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that up-regulation of vimentin and plectin expression positively correlates with the invasion and metastasis of androgen-independent PCA.
    PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e65005. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065005 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "An ELISA for EphA2 confirmed its increased expression in plaques (Fig. 2e). Ephrin-A1, which is normally concentrated in basal keratinocytes (Guo et al., 2006), was reduced in the basal layer and occasionally found in the suprabasal layers of psoriatic plaques. While ephrin-A3 immunoreactivity was reduced in the basal layer of psoriatic plaques, this ligand was also decreased in non-lesional epidermis where EphA2 levels remain low. "
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    ABSTRACT: EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that triggers keratinocyte differentiation upon activation and subsequent downregulation by ephrin-A1 ligand. The objective of this study was to determine whether the EphA2/ephrin-A1 signaling axis was altered in psoriasis, an inflammatory skin condition in which keratinocyte differentiation is abnormal. Microarray analysis of skin biopsies from psoriasis patients revealed increased mRNA transcripts for several members of this RTK family in plaques, including the EphA1, EphA2, and EphA4 subtypes prominently expressed by keratinocytes. Of these, EphA2 showed the greatest upregulation, a finding that was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISA. In contrast, psoriatic lesions exhibited reduced ephrin-A ligand immunoreactivity. Exposure of primary keratinocytes induced to differentiate in high calcium or a three-dimensional (3D) raft culture of human epidermis to a combination of growth factors and cytokines elevated in psoriasis increased EphA2 mRNA and protein expression while inducing S100A7 and disrupting differentiation. Pharmacological delivery of a soluble ephrin-A1 peptidomimetic ligand led to a reduction in EphA2 expression and ameliorated proliferation and differentiation in raft cultures exposed to EGF and IL-1α. These findings suggest that ephrin-A1-mediated downregulation of EphA2 supports keratinocyte differentiation in the context of cytokine perturbation.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 November 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.391.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 11/2012; 133(3). DOI:10.1038/jid.2012.391 · 7.22 Impact Factor
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    • "In vivo studies demonstrate that EphA2 activation by systemically administered ephrin-A1 decreases tumorigenicity and invasiveness of carcinoma xenografts [13], [14]. Moreover, EphA2 deletion mice show increased susceptibility to carcinogen-induced skin tumorigenesis [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: During tumor progression, EphA2 receptor can gain ligand-independent pro-oncogenic functions due to Akt activation and reduced ephrin-A ligand engagement. The effects can be reversed by ligand stimulation, which triggers the intrinsic tumor suppressive signaling pathways of EphA2 including inhibition of PI3/Akt and Ras/ERK pathways. These observations argue for development of small molecule agonists for EphA2 as potential tumor intervention agents. Through virtual screening and cell-based assays, we report here the identification and characterization of doxazosin as a novel small molecule agonist for EphA2 and EphA4, but not for other Eph receptors tested. NMR studies revealed extensive contacts of doxazosin with EphA2/A4, recapitulating both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions recently found in the EphA2/ephrin-A1 complex. Clinically used as an α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (Cardura®) for treating hypertension and benign prostate hyperplasia, doxazosin activated EphA2 independent of α1-adrenoreceptor. Similar to ephrin-A1, doxazosin inhibited Akt and ERK kinase activities in an EphA2-dependent manner. Treatment with doxazosin triggered EphA2 receptor internalization, and suppressed haptotactic and chemotactic migration of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and glioma cells. Moreover, in an orthotopic xenograft model, doxazosin reduced distal metastasis of human prostate cancer cells and prolonged survival in recipient mice. To our knowledge, doxazosin is the first small molecule agonist of a receptor tyrosine kinase that is capable of inhibiting malignant behaviors in vitro and in vivo.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0042120 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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