Distribution and structure of N atoms in multiwalled carbon nanotubes using variable-energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
ABSTRACT We investigated the inhomogeneous distribution of concentration and electronic structure of the nitrogen (N) atoms doped in the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by variable-energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near-edge structure, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The vertically aligned N-doped CNTs on the substrates were grown via pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine (FePc), cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), and nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) in the temperature range 750-1000 degrees C. They usually have a bamboo-like structure, and the diameter is in the range of 15-80 nm. As the photon energy of XPS increases from 475 to 1265 eV, the N content increases up to 8 atomic %, indicating a higher N concentration at the inside of nanotubes. We identified three typed N structures: graphite-like, pyridine-like, and molecular N(2). The pyridine-like N structure becomes significant at the inner walls. Molecular N(2) would exist as intercalated forms in the vicinity of hollow inside. The XPS valence band analysis reveals that the pyridine-like N structure induces the metallic behaviors. The CNTs grown using NiPc contain the higher content of pyridine-like structure compared to those grown using FePc and CoPc, so they exhibit more metallic properties.
SourceAvailable from: Jian Liu
03/2013; 2(6):615-635. DOI:10.1515/ntrev-2013-0007
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ABSTRACT: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the best tools for studying the chemical modification of surfaces, and in particular the distribution and bonding of heteroatom dopants in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although these materials have superb intrinsic properties, these often need to be modified in a controlled way for specific applications. Towards this aim, the most studied dopants are neighbors to carbon in the periodic table, nitrogen and boron, with phosphorus starting to emerge as an interesting new alternative. Hundreds of studies have used XPS for analyzing the concentration and bonding of dopants in various materials. Although the majority of works has concentrated on nitrogen, important work is still ongoing to identify its precise atomic bonding configurations. In general, care should be taken in the preparation of a suitable sample, consideration of the intrinsic photoemission response of the material in question, and the appropriate spectral analysis. If this is not the case, incorrect conclusions can easily be drawn, especially in the assignment of measured binding energies into specific atomic configurations. Starting from the characteristics of pristine materials, this review provides a practical guide for interpreting X-ray photoelectron spectra of doped graphitic carbon nanomaterials, and a reference for their binding energies that are vital for compositional analysis via XPS.Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 01/2015; 6:177-92. DOI:10.3762/bjnano.6.17 · 2.33 Impact Factor