Androgen and prolactin (Prl) levels in systemic sclerosis (SSc): relationship to disease severity.
ABSTRACT Testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin, (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and prolactin (Prl) serum levels were measured by electrochemiluminescense immunoassay (ECLIA) in 39 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and compared with serum hormonal levels in control subjects matched for sex and reproductive status. A possible relationship with disease duration and disease severity was examined. Our data show an altered androgen and prolactin (Prl) status in SSc patients, in most cases related to disease duration and disease severity score. We can hypothesize that hormonal dysregulation is a consequence of the chronicity of the disease. The altered hormonal status could result in relative immunological hyperactivity contributing to enhance tissue damage and disease severity.
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ABSTRACT: There is a supposed link between autoimmune diseases and sex hormones. To better understand the pathogenesis of human autoimmune diseases, an animal model is a good tool that can also help in developing novel therapeutics for diseases. Animal models of diseases can be divided into naturally occurring or induced by physical, chemical, or biological factors. Most human autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome (SS), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and multiple sclerosis (MS) have increased incidence and prevalence in females, but so far, sex differences and hormone therapy in spontaneous or chemical induced animal models of autoimmunity are not entirely clear. Possible reasons for the differing incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases in human and animal models is the focus of interest. This review described the known effects of the female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on immune cells in order to clarify sex differences in autoimmune diseases. Data from both human and autoimmune animal studies were reviewed to determine reasons for these differences, and to integrate the role of sex differences and hormone therapy in spontaneous- versus chemical-induced animal models of human autoimmune diseases to clarify sex differences in autoimmunity.Autoimmunity reviews 12/2011; 11(6-7):A422-9. DOI:10.1016/j.autrev.2011.11.020 · 7.10 Impact Factor
Article: Prolactin and autoimmunity[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sex hormones, especially estrogen and prolactin (PRL), have an important role in modulating the immune response. PRL is secreted from the pituitary gland as well as other organs and cells particularly lymphocytes. PRL has an immune stimulatory effect and promotes autoimmunity. PRL interferes specifically with B cell tolerance induction, enhances proliferative response to antigens and mitogens and increases the production of immune globulins, cytokines and autoantibodies. Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) in women present with clinical manifestations of galactorrhea, primary or secondary amenorrhea, delayed menarche or a change in the menses either in the amount or in the regularity. Furthermore in the last 2 decades multi-organ and organ specific autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), multiple sclerosis (MS), psoriasis, hepatitis C patients, Behçet's disease, peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) and active celiac disease were discussed to be associated with HPRL. There is data showing correlation between PRL level and diseases activity in few diseases. Genetic factors may have a role in humans as in animal models. The PRL isoforms based on the differences in the amino acid sequence and size of the cytoplasmic domain have an important effect on the bioactivity on prolactin receptors (PRL-Rs).Autoimmunity reviews 12/2011; 11(6-7):A465-70. DOI:10.1016/j.autrev.2011.11.009 · 7.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown inconsistent effect of systemic sclerosis (SSc) on bone mineral density (BMD). The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of previous articles to investigate the differences in BMD (g/cm(2) ) between SSc and non-SSc populations and to discuss potential underlying mechanisms. Twelve full-text articles (including an outlier study and two studies with identical data) with 662 SSc patients and 886 controls were identified by searching Medline prior to 10 September, 2013 using search terms 'Systemic sclerosis' OR 'scleroderma' and 'osteoporosis' OR 'bone density' OR 'bone mass'. BMD (mean and standard deviation), T-scores and Z-scores at lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were extracted. Meta-analysis showed that a lower level of BMD was found in SSc patients, with weighted mean difference of -0.343 (95% CI: -0.500 to -0.186) at femoral neck, -0.084 (95% CI: -0.110 to -0.057) at total hip and -0.104 (95% CI: -0.135 to -0.073) at the lumbar spine. We conclude that patients with SSc may have a lower BMD level than healthy controls.International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 06/2014; 17(8). DOI:10.1111/1756-185X.12395 · 1.77 Impact Factor