Species differences in the in vitro metabolism of deltamethrin and esfenvalerate: Differential oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism by humans and rats
ABSTRACT Pyrethroids are neurotoxic pesticides whose pharmacokinetic behavior plays a role in their potency. This study examined the elimination of esfenvalerate and deltamethrin from rat and human liver microsomes. A parent depletion approach in the presence and absence of NADPH was used to assess species differences in biotransformation pathways, rates of elimination, and intrinsic hepatic clearance. Esfenvalerate was eliminated primarily via NADPH-dependent oxidative metabolism in both rat and human liver microsomes. The intrinsic hepatic clearance (CL(INT)) of esfenvalerate was estimated to be 3-fold greater in rodents than in humans on a per kilogram body weight basis. Deltamethrin was also eliminated primarily via NADPH-dependent oxidative metabolism in rat liver microsomes; however, in human liver microsomes, deltamethrin was eliminated almost entirely via NADPH-independent hydrolytic metabolism. The CL(INT) for deltamethrin was estimated to be 2-fold more rapid in humans than in rats on a per kilogram body weight basis. Metabolism by purified rat and human carboxylesterases (CEs) were used to further examine the species differences in hydrolysis of deltamethrin and esfenvalerate. Results of CE metabolism revealed that human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE-1) was markedly more active toward deltamethrin than the class 1 rat CEs hydrolase A and B and the class 2 human CE (hCE-2); however, hydrolase A metabolized esfenvalerate 2-fold faster than hCE-1, whereas hydrolase B and hCE-1 hydrolyzed esfenvalerate at equal rates. These studies demonstrate a significant species difference in the in vitro pathways of biotransformation of deltamethrin in rat and human liver microsomes, which is due in part to differences in the intrinsic activities of rat and human carboxylestersases.
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ABSTRACT: The widespread usage of methylphenidate (MPH) in the pediatric population has received considerable attention due to its potential effect on child development. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been developed in juvenile and adult humans and nonhuman primates to quantitatively evaluate species- and age-dependent enantiomer specific pharmacokinetics of MPH and its primary metabolite ritalinic acid. The PBPK model was first calibrated in adult humans using in vitro enzyme kinetic data of MPH enantiomers, together with plasma and urine pharmacokinetic data with MPH in adult humans. Metabolism of MPH in the small intestine was assumed to account for the low oral bioavailability of MPH. Due to lack of information, model development for children and juvenile and adult nonhuman primates primarily relied on intra- and interspecies extrapolation using allometric scaling. The juvenile monkeys appear to metabolize MPH more rapidly than adult monkeys and humans, both adults and children. Model prediction performance is comparable between juvenile monkeys and children, with average root mean squared error values of 4.1 and 2.1, providing scientific basis for interspecies extrapolation of toxicity findings. Model estimated human equivalent doses in children that achieve similar internal dose metrics to those associated with pubertal delays in juvenile monkeys were found to be close to the therapeutic doses of MPH used in pediatric patients. This computational analysis suggests that continued pharmacovigilance assessment is prudent for the safe use of MPH.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106101. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106101 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Carboxylesterases (CES, EC 188.8.131.52) are members of a superfamily of serine hydrolases that hydrolyze ester, amide, and carbamate bonds. Several different CES genes exist in mammalian species with evidence of multiple gene duplication events occurring throughout evolutionary history. There are five CES genes reported in the Human Genome Organization database, although CES1 and CES2 are the two best characterized human genes. An emerging picture of the CES family suggests that these enzymes have dual roles in the metabolism of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. Pesticides, such as the pyrethroids, are important xenobiotic substrates that are metabolized by CES, whereas cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are examples of endobiotics known to be substrates for CES. Functional studies using selective chemical inhibitors, siRNA, and gene knockout models are providing valuable insights into the physiological functions of CES, and suggest that CES may be a novel target for the treatment of diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. This review will examine the known physiological functions of CES, the interactions between xenobiotics (primarily pesticides) and lipids that occur with CES enzymes, and where possible the implications that these findings may have in terms of health and disease.Journal of Pesticide Science 01/2010; 35(3):257-264. DOI:10.1584/jpestics.R10-07 · 0.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To characterize the pharmacokinetics and distribution profiles of deltamethrin in miniature pig tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods Pharmacokinetics and distribution of deltamethrin in blood and tissues of 30 miniature pigs were studied by GC-MS after oral administration of deltamethrin (5 mg/kg bw). Data were processed by 3P97 software. Results The serum deltamethrin level was significantly lower in tissues than in blood of miniature pigs. The AUC(0-72) (h,) C-max, of deltamethrin were 555.330 +/- 316.987 ng h/mL and 17.861 +/- 11.129 ng/mL, respectively. The T-max, of deltamethrin was 6.004 +/- 3.131 h. Conclusion The metabolism of deltamethrin in miniature pigs is fit for a one-compartment model with a weighting function of 1/C-2. Deltamethrin is rapidly hydrolyzed and accumulated in miniature pig tissues.Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 06/2014; 27(6):426-35. DOI:10.3967/bes2014.035 · 1.26 Impact Factor