Cell phones and driving: review of research.
ABSTRACT The research literature on drivers' use of cell phones was reviewed to identify trends in drivers' phone use and to determine the state of knowledge about the safety consequences of such use.
Approximately 125 studies were reviewed with regard to the research questions, type and rigor of the methods, and findings. Reviewed studies included surveys of drivers, experiments, naturalistic studies (continuous recording of everyday driving by drivers in instrumented vehicles), studies of crash risk, and evaluations of laws limiting drivers' phone use.
Observational surveys indicate drivers commonly use cell phones and that such use is increasing. Drivers report they usually use hand-held phones. Experimental studies have found that simulated or instrumented driving tasks, or driving while being observed, are compromised by tasks intended to replicate phone conversations, whether using hand-held or hands-free phones, and may be further compromised by the physical distraction of handling phones. Effects of phone use on driving performance when drivers are in their own vehicles are unknown. With representative samples of adequate size, naturalistic studies in the future may provide the means to document the patterns and circumstances of drivers' phone use and their effects on real-world driving. Currently, the best studies of crash risk used cell phone company billing records to verify phone use by crash-involved drivers. Two such studies found a fourfold increase in the risk of a property-damage-only crash and the risk of an injury crash associated with phone use; increased risk was similar for males and females, younger and older drivers, and hands-free and hand-held phones. A number of jurisdictions in the United States and around the world have made it illegal for drivers to use hand-held phones. Studies of these laws show only limited compliance and unclear effects on safety.
Even if total compliance with bans on drivers' hand-held cell phone use can be achieved, crash risk will remain to the extent that drivers continue to use or switch to hands-free phones. Although the enactment of laws limiting drivers' use of all phones is consistent with research findings, it is unclear how such laws could be enforced. At least in the short term, it appears that drivers' phone use will continue to increase, despite the growing evidence of the risk it creates. More effective countermeasures are needed but are not known at this time.
- SourceAvailable from: Veronique Huth[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phone use while driving has become one of the priority issues in road safety, given that it may lead to decreased situation awareness and deteriorated driving performance. It has been suggested that drivers can regulate their exposure to secondary tasks and seek for compatibility of phone use and driving. Phone use strategies include the choice of driving situations with low demands and interruptions of the interaction when the context changes. Traffic light situations at urban intersections imply both a temptation to use the phone while waiting at the red traffic light and a potential threat due to the incompatibility of phone use and driving when the traffic light turns green. These two situations were targeted in a roadside observation study, with the aim to investigate the existence of a phone use strategy at the red traffic light and to test its effectiveness. N = 124 phone users and a corresponding control group of non-users were observed. Strategic phone use behaviour was detected for visual–manual interactions, which are more likely to be initiated at the red traffic light and tend to be stopped before the vehicle moves off, while calls are less likely to be limited to the red traffic light situation. As an indicator of impaired situation awareness, delayed start was associated to phone use and in particular to visual–manual interactions, whether phone use was interrupted before moving off or not. Traffic light situations do not seem to allow effective application of phone use strategies, although drivers attempt to do so for the most demanding phone use mode. The underlying factors of phone use need to be studied so as to reduce the temptation of phone use and facilitate exposure regulation strategies.Accident Analysis & Prevention 01/2015; 74:42–48. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2014.10.008 · 1.87 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Introduction: Road traffic injuries are the largest cause of loss of disability-adjusted life years for men and women of all ages in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but data on driving habits there are lacking. To inform policymakers on drivers' abilities and driving habits, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey 2013. Methods: We surveyed a representative sample of 5,235 Saudi males aged 15 years or older on wearing seatbelts, exceeding speed limits, and using a handheld cell phone while driving. Male and female respondents were surveyed on wearing seatbelts as passengers. Results: Among Saudi males, 71.7% reported having had a driver's license, but more than 43% of unlicensed males drove a vehicle. Among drivers, 86.1% engaged in at least one risky behavior while driving. Older and unlicensed drivers were more likely to take risks while driving. This risk decreased among the more educated, current smokers, and those who are physically active. Up to 94.9% and 98.5% of respondents reported not wearing a seatbelt in the front and the back passenger seats, respectively. Discussion: The high burden of road traffic injuries in the Kingdom is not surprising given our findings. Our study calls for aggressive monitoring and enforcement of traffic laws. Awareness and proper education for drivers and their families should be developed jointly by the Ministries of Health, Interior Affairs, and Education and provided through their channels.Traffic Injury Prevention 12/2014; 16(6). DOI:10.1080/15389588.2014.990090 · 1.29 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to estimate the risk effects of distracted driving, by incorporating a dynamic, data-driven car-following model in an algorithmic framework. The model was developed to predict the situational risk associated with distracted driving. To obtain longitudinal driving patterns, this paper analyzed and synthesized the NGSIM naturalistic driver and traffic database, through a dynamic time warping algorithm, to identify essential driver behavior and characteristics. Cognitive psychology concepts, distracted driving simulator, and experimental data were adapted to examine the probabilistic nature of distracted driving due to internal vehicle distractions. An extended microscopic car-following model was developed and validated, which can be fully integrated with the naturalistic data and incorporate the probabilities of driver distraction.Transportation Research Part C Emerging Technologies 09/2014; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.trc.2014.07.013 · 2.01 Impact Factor