Cell phones and driving: review of research.
ABSTRACT The research literature on drivers' use of cell phones was reviewed to identify trends in drivers' phone use and to determine the state of knowledge about the safety consequences of such use.
Approximately 125 studies were reviewed with regard to the research questions, type and rigor of the methods, and findings. Reviewed studies included surveys of drivers, experiments, naturalistic studies (continuous recording of everyday driving by drivers in instrumented vehicles), studies of crash risk, and evaluations of laws limiting drivers' phone use.
Observational surveys indicate drivers commonly use cell phones and that such use is increasing. Drivers report they usually use hand-held phones. Experimental studies have found that simulated or instrumented driving tasks, or driving while being observed, are compromised by tasks intended to replicate phone conversations, whether using hand-held or hands-free phones, and may be further compromised by the physical distraction of handling phones. Effects of phone use on driving performance when drivers are in their own vehicles are unknown. With representative samples of adequate size, naturalistic studies in the future may provide the means to document the patterns and circumstances of drivers' phone use and their effects on real-world driving. Currently, the best studies of crash risk used cell phone company billing records to verify phone use by crash-involved drivers. Two such studies found a fourfold increase in the risk of a property-damage-only crash and the risk of an injury crash associated with phone use; increased risk was similar for males and females, younger and older drivers, and hands-free and hand-held phones. A number of jurisdictions in the United States and around the world have made it illegal for drivers to use hand-held phones. Studies of these laws show only limited compliance and unclear effects on safety.
Even if total compliance with bans on drivers' hand-held cell phone use can be achieved, crash risk will remain to the extent that drivers continue to use or switch to hands-free phones. Although the enactment of laws limiting drivers' use of all phones is consistent with research findings, it is unclear how such laws could be enforced. At least in the short term, it appears that drivers' phone use will continue to increase, despite the growing evidence of the risk it creates. More effective countermeasures are needed but are not known at this time.
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ABSTRACT: There is a considerable debate on addiction and abuse to Smartphone among adolescents and its consequent impact on their health; not only in a global context, but also specifically in the Indian population; considering that Smartphone’s, globally occupy more than 50% of mobile phones market and more precise quantification of the associated problems is important to facilitate understanding in this field. As per PRISMA (2009) guidelines, extensive search of various studies in any form from a global scale to the more narrow Indian context using two key search words: “Smartphone’s addiction” and “Indian adolescents” was done using websites of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Global Health, Psyc‑INFO, Biomed‑Central, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, world library ‑ World‑Cat, Indian libraries such as National Medical Library of India from 1 January, 1995 to March 31, 2014 first for systematic‑review. Finally, meta‑analysis on only Indian studies was done using Med‑Calc online software capable of doing meta‑analysis of proportions. A total of 45 articles were considered in systematic‑review from whole world; later on 6 studies out of these 45 related to Smartphone’s addiction in India were extracted to perform meta‑analysis, in which total 1304 participants (range: 165-335) were enrolled. The smartphone addiction magnitude in India ranged from 39% to 44% as per fixed effects calculated (P < 0.0001). Smartphone addiction among Indian teens can not only damage interpersonal skills, but also it can lead to significant negative health risks and harmful psychological effects on Indian adolescents.International journal of preventive medicine 12/2014; 5(12):1500-11.
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ABSTRACT: Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.Sultan Qaboos University medical journal 08/2014; 14(3):e297-305.
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ABSTRACT: In the area of occupational health and safety multitasking becomes more and more important. Studies have shown that multitasking leads to a decrease in performance. However, studies often try to identify underlying mental mechanisms. Multitasking and its consequences for occupational health and safety are rarely considered. In this study, the effects of multitasking were investigated using two work-related scenarios. Changes were assessed in relation to three areas: performance values, subjective strain and physiological parameters. Data was also analyzed with respect to possible gender and age differences. Due to a focus on people of working age, the participants were aged between 21 and 60 years old. Multitasking led to reduced performance and increased levels of subjective strain. Changes in physiological parameters appear to be dependent on the type of task. There were no gender and virtually no age differences regarding the single-task compared to the multitasking condition. Overall, the data suggests that multitasking in the workplace should be minimized, at least for certain tasks, in order to prevent mistakes and potential accidents as well as mental strain. Further research should be carried out to investigate the long-term effects of multitasking on performance and health.Europe’s Journal of Psychology. 11/2010; 6(4).