Development of phantom for radiographic image optimization of standard patient in the lateral view of chest and skull examination
ABSTRACT We present the construction of a homogeneous phantom to be used in simulating the scattering and absorption of X-rays by a standard patient chest and skull when irradiated laterally. This phantom consisted of lucite and aluminium plates with their thickness determined by a tomographic exploratory method applied to the anthropomorphic phantom. Using this phantom, an optimized radiographic technique was established for chest and skull of standard sized patient in lateral view. Images generated with this optimized technique demonstrated improved image quality and reduced radiation doses.
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ABSTRACT: A prerequisite for the construction of phantoms is the quantification of the average thickness of biological tissues and the equivalence of these simulators in simulator material thicknesses. This study aim to develop an algorithm to classify and quantify tissues, based on normal distribution of CT numbers of anatomical structures found in the mean free path of the X-rays beam, using the examination histogram to carry out this evaluation. We have considered an algorithm for the determination of the equivalent biological tissues thickness from histograms. This algorithm classifies different biological tissues from tomographic exams in DICOM format and calculates the average thickness of these tissues. The founded results had revealed coherent with literature, presenting discrepancies of up to 21,6%, relative to bone tissue, analyzed for anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO). These results allow using this methodology in livings tissues, for the construction of thorax homogeneous phantoms, of just born and suckling patients, who will be used later in the optimization process of pediatrics radiographic images.
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ABSTRACT: This work presents methods for detection of masses in the breast phantom images for quality control of mammography. The methodologies for both are based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) where the low frequency present in the x-ray image is suppressed, then morphological operations that result in a good location of these objects in the radiograph simulator of the breast are made to quantify the subjective evaluation of specialists in radiology and apply the results of tests in the daily Quality Control (QC).
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ABSTRACT: The construction of the adapted patient equivalent phantom (APEP) to simulate the X-ray scattering and absorption by chest, skull and pelvis of nonstandard patient in conventional radiographic equipment is presented. This APEP system is associated to the pre-existing realistic-analytic phantom (RAP) [Pina, D.R., Duarte, S.B., Ghilardi Netto, T., Trad, C. S., Brochi, M.A.C., Oliveira, S.C. de, 2004. Optimization of standard patient radiographic images for chest, skull and pelvis exams in conventional X-ray equipment. Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N215-N226] forming the coupled phantom (RAP-APEP), which is used to establish an optimization process of radiographic images of chest, skull and pelvis for nonstandard patients. A chart of the optimized radiographic technique is established covering a wide range of nonstandard patient thickness, and offering a dose reduction in comparison with those techniques currently used. Different validation processes were applied to confirm the improving of the radiographic image quality when techniques of the established chart are used.Applied radiation and isotopes: including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine 09/2008; 67(1):61-9. DOI:10.1016/j.apradiso.2008.07.018 · 1.06 Impact Factor