Dentine hypersensitivity may be defined as the pain arising from exposed dentine, typically in response to external stimuli, and which cannot be explained by any other form of dental disease. Many treatment regimens have been recommended over the years, and in recent years particular attention has been focused on toothpastes containing various potassium salts.
To compare the effectiveness of potassium containing toothpastes with control toothpastes in reducing dentine hypersensitivity.
The following databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (searched until August 2005); CENTRAL (until August 2005); EMBASE/MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science (until September 2005). Bibliographies of clinical studies and reviews identified in the electronic search were checked for studies published outside the electronically searched journals.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which the effect on dentine hypersensitivity of potassium containing toothpastes was tested against non-potassium containing control toothpastes.
Two of the review authors independently recorded the results of the included trials using a specially designed form. Sensitivity was assessed by using thermal, tactile, air blast, and subjective methods.
Six studies were included in the meta-analysis which showed the statistically significant effect of potassium nitrate toothpaste on air blast and tactile sensitivity at the 6 to 8 weeks follow up, e.g. the meta-analysis of air blast sensitivity showed a standardized mean difference in sensitivity score of -1.25 (95% CI: -1.65 to -0.851) in favour of treatment. The subjective assessment failed to show a significant effect at the 6 to 8 week assessment.
The evidence generated by this review is based on a small number of individuals. Furthermore, the effect varies with the methods applied for assessing the sensitivity. Thus no clear evidence is available for the support of potassium containing toothpastes for dentine hypersensitivity.
"Among the numerous treatment regimens that have been recommended over these years, particular attention has been focused on toothpastes containing potassium salts (Markowitz et al., 1991; Nagata et al., 1994; Peacock and Orchardson, 1995; Orchardson and Gillam, 2000; Poulsen et al., 2006; Bellamy et al., 2009) and, more recently, on a new toothpaste formulation containing zinc (Zn)-substituted carbonate-hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanostructured microcrystals (from now on called Zn-CHA toothpaste), which has been shown to produce in vitro remineralization of the altered enamel surfaces and to be effective in closing dentinal tubules (Kuroiwa et al., 1994; Rimondini et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2008; Roveri et al., 2008, 2009a). Indeed, a clinical randomized trial has shown the efficacy of CHA-based toothpastes in reducing DH, after 4 and 8 weeks. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consumption of acidic foods and drinks and other factors that cause enamel wear are responsible for the daily enamel loss and degradation. Use of some toothpastes that have been showed to possess different properties of remineralisation and/or repair of the enamel surface may help to protect tooth enamel. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the use of toothpaste containing Zn-carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanostructured microcrystals may exert remineralization/repair effects of the enamel surface. Two groups of patients, aged between 18 and 75 years, used a Zn-CHA nanocrystals-based toothpaste (experimental group) and a potassium nitrate/sodium fluoride toothpaste (active control group) for 8 weeks. At the end of this period, extractions were performed in five subjects per study group. Negative controls consisted of two subjects treated with non-specified fluoride toothpaste. Teeth were processed for morphological and chemical-physic superficial characterizations by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy with Elementary analysis, X-Ray Diffraction analysis and Infrared analysis. In this study, the use of a Zn-CHA nanocrystals toothpaste led to a remineralization/repair of the enamel surface, by deposition of a hydroxyapatite-rich coating. On the other hand, the use of both a nitrate potassium/sodium fluoride and non-specified fluoride toothpastes did not appreciably change the enamel surface. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the toothpaste containing Zn-CHA nanostructured microcrystals, differently from nitrate potassium/sodium fluoride and non-specified fluoride toothpastes, may promote enamel superficial repair by means of the formation of a protective biomimetic CHA coating.
Frontiers in Physiology 09/2014; 5:333. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00333 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. The aim of the present study was to review the published literature in order to identify relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence on the clinical effectiveness of selected desensitizing toothpastes, calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), nanohydroxyapatite, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (tooth mousse) on reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods. Following a review of 593 papers identified from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, only 5 papers were accepted for inclusion. Results. Analysis of the included studies (3 CSPS and 2 ACP) would suggest that there may be some benefit for patients using these products for reducing DH. No direct comparative studies were available to assess all these products under the same conditions neither were there any comparative randomised controlled studies that compared at least two of these products in determining their effectiveness in treating DH. Conclusions. Due to the small number of included studies, there are limited clinical data to support any claims of clinical efficacy of these OTC products. Further studies are therefore required to determine the efficacy of these products in well-controlled RCT studies with a larger sample size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this review is to inform practitioners about dentin hypersensitivity (DH); to provide a brief overview of the diagnosis, etiology and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity and to discuss technical approaches to relieve sensitivity. This clinical information is described in the context of the underlying biology.
The author used PUBMED to find relevant English-language literature published in the period 1999 to 2010. The author used combinations of the search terms “dentin*”, “tooth”, “teeth”, “hypersensit*”, “desensitiz*”. Abstracts and also full text articles to identify studies describing etiology, prevalence, clinical features, controlled clinical trials of treatments and relevant laboratory research on mechanisms of action were used.
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