Laparoscopic treatment of benign insulinomas localized in the body and tail of the pancreas: a single-center experience.
ABSTRACT The increasingly widespread use of minimally invasive surgery has allowed surgeons to exploit this approach for complex procedures, such as pancreatic resections, though its actual role outside simple operations remains debated.
This is a study of 12 consecutive patients, 5 men and 7 women, with pancreatic insulinoma who were treated at our institution from 2000 to September 2005. All patients presented with typical symptoms and laboratory findings of hyperinsulinism and were good candidates for laparoscopic surgery. Preoperative diagnostic work-up, operating time, postoperative complication rate, length of hospital stayd and clinical outcome were assessed.
Successful laparoscopic resection was performed in 11 out of 12 patients: 4 had tumor enucleation, and 7 had distal pancreatectomy; among these latter 5 had spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. In 1 case conversion to open surgery was necessary. Mean operative time was 170 minutes. The median tumor size was 18 mm, and all the insulinomas were benign. Four complications were observed in this group, and the median hospital stay was 8 days.
The laparoscopic approach proved to be feasible and safe, although the average operative time was longer and demanded good surgical skills as well as precise localization of the tumor and definition of its nature. Tumors located in the body or tail of the pancreas that are benign in nature can better benefit of laparoscopic approach.
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ABSTRACT: Although minimally invasive surgery has achieved worldwide acceptance in various fields, laparoscopic surgery for pancreatic diseases has been reported only rarely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of laparoscopic pancreatic surgery. Fifteen patients, comprising eight men and seven women with an average age of 54 years, underwent laparoscopic pancreatic surgery. Distal pancreatectomy was indicated for solid tumors ( n = 4), cystic lesions ( n = 3), and chronic pancreatitis ( n = 2). Cystogastrostomy was performed for pseudocysts ( n = 4) and enucleation for insulinomas ( n = 2). The lesions varied in size from 1 to 9 cm (2.9 +/- 2.4 cm) and were located in the pancreatic head ( n = 2), body ( n = 3), or tail ( n = 10). For distal pancreatectomy, the splenic artery was divided and the parenchyma was transected with a linear stapler. Laparoscopic ultrasonography was used to determine the distance between the tumor and the main pancreatic duct for enucleation as well as to localize the lesion for distal pancreatectomy. Cystogastrostomy, 4.5 cm in length, was also performed with the linear stapler through the window of the lesser omentum. Mean operation time was 249 +/- 70 min (293 +/- 58 min in distal pancreatectomy, 185 +/- 14 min in enucleation, 204 +/- 50 min in cystogastrostomy), and mean blood loss was 138 +/- 184 g (213 +/- 227 g, 75 +/- 35 g, 38 +/- 48 g, respectively). Two distal pancreatectomies (13%) were converted to open surgery due to severe peripancreatic inflammation. There was no related mortality, but there were two cases (15%) of pancreatic fistula, one in a distal pancreatectomy case and the other in an enucleation case, and both were treated conservatively. Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery is safe and feasible for patients with benign tumors and cystic lesions.Surgical Endoscopy 04/2004; 18(3):402-6. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Surgical resection of insulinomas is the preferred treatment in order to avoid symptoms of hypoglycaemia. During the past years, advances in laparoscopic techniques have allowed surgeons to approach the pancreas and treat these lesions laparoscopically. We analysed the feasibility, safety, and outcome of patients undergoing laparoscopic resection of insulinomas in a large, retrospective, multicentre study. Thirty-six patients with pancreatic insulinomas were enrolled in this study. All patients were suspected of having solitary insulinomas after preoperative localisation tests and underwent a laparoscopic approach. Patients, operating characteristics and outcome were analysed. Mean patient age was 48 years (range 20-77 years). Insulinomas were localised in the head (n=7), isthmus (n=2), body (n=14) or tail (n=13) of the pancreas before laparoscopic approach. Mean size of the lesions was 15.5 mm (range 4-25 mm). The surgical procedure was enucleation in 19 cases (52%), spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy in 12 cases (33%), spleno-pancreatectomy in three cases (8%), one duodenopancreatectomy and one central pancreatectomy. Conversion rate was 30%. The reason for conversion in seven patients (63%) was the inability to localise the tumour during the laparoscopic procedure. In six of these cases laparoscopic ultrasonography was not performed. Mean operating time was 156 min (range 50-420 min). Postoperative course was uneventful in 23 patients (64%). Eleven patients (30%) developed specific complications of pancreatic surgery: intra-abdominal abscess (n=6) or pancreatico-cutaneous fistula (n=5). Mean duration of fistulae was 55 days (range 5-130 days) and all the fistulae were dry at follow-up. After a mean follow-up period of 26 months (range 2-87 months), 33 patients (91%) are free of symptoms, and three patients have been lost to follow-up. The laparoscopic approach is safe to treat preoperatively localised insulinoma, with a morbidity rate comparable to that for the open approach. When the tumour is not found during laparoscopy, laparoscopic ultrasonography seems to be the most efficient tool to localise it and probably to prevent conversion.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 05/2005; 390(2):134-40. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rarity of malignant insulinoma limits reports on therapeutic strategies and outcome. The treatment and follow-up of 10 patients, all presenting an insulinoma with metastatic disease of the liver and newly diagnosed between 1992 and 2002, is reported. Pancreatic surgery with successful removal of the primary tumor preferentially located in the tail was performed in 7 women and 3 men, median age 55 years (range 36-82 years). If appropriate, 5 patients underwent additional hepatic surgery and lymph node resections. Liver metastases as the major cause of postoperatively persistent hypoglycemia were subsequently treated by repeated transarterial hepatic chemoembolization and chemoperfusion protocols using high-dose transhepatic streptozocin perfusions (3-4 g per session). The current median survival time for all 10 patients is 2.6 years (range: 1.6-9.7 years). Six patients are currently alive with a median survival of 3.7 years (1.7-9.7 years), five of them with stable disease and free of hypoglycemia. Four patients died after a median survival of 1.8 years (range: 1.6-7.5 years) from complications of unmanageable hypoglycemia. It is concluded that the necessity to treat debiliating and life-threatening hypoglycemia in metastatic malignant insulinoma warrants the option of radical endocrine surgery in combination with extended and repeated postoperative chemoembolization of liver metastases.World Journal of Surgery 07/2005; 29(6):789-93. · 2.23 Impact Factor