Role of soluble epoxide hydrolase in postischemic recovery of heart contractile function.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.09). 09/2006; 99(4):442-50. DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000237390.92932.37
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) which are converted to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH). To examine the functional role of sEH in the heart, mice with targeted disruption of the Ephx2 gene were studied. Hearts from sEH null mice have undetectable levels of sEH mRNA and protein and cannot convert EETs to DHETs. sEH null mice have normal heart anatomy and basal contractile function, but have higher fatty acid epoxide:diol ratios in plasma and cardiomyocyte cell culture media compared with wild type (WT). sEH null hearts have improved recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and less infarction compared with WT hearts after 20 minutes ischemia. Perfusion with the putative EET receptor antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (10 to 100 nmol/L) before ischemia abolishes this cardioprotective phenotype. Inhibitor studies demonstrate that perfusion with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin (200 nmol/L) or LY294002 (5 micromol/L), the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K(ATP)) inhibitor glibenclamide (1 micromol/L), the mitochondrial K(ATP) (mitoK(ATP)) inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (100 to 200 micromol/L), or the Ca2+-sensitive K+ channel (K(Ca)) inhibitor paxilline (10 micromol/L) abolishes the cardioprotection in sEH null hearts. Consistent with increased activation of the PI3K cascade, sEH null mice exhibit increased cardiac expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) phospho-protein after ischemia. Together, these data suggest that targeted disruption of sEH increases the availability of cardioprotective EETs that work by activating PI3K signaling pathways and K+ channels.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI), is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, despite well-established treatments. The discovery and development of novel therapeutics that prevent the progression of devastating consequences following AMI are thus important in reducing the global burden of this devastating disease. Scientific evidence for the protective effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the cardiovascular system are rapidly emerging and suggest that promoting the effects of these cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosanoids is a potentially viable clinical therapeutic strategy. Through a translational lens, this review will provide insight into the potential clinical utility of this therapeutic strategy for AMI by 1) outlining the known cardioprotective effects of EETs and underlying mechanisms demonstrated in preclinical models of AMI with a particular focus on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, 2) describing studies in human cohorts that demonstrate a relationship between EETs and associated pathways with coronary artery disease risk, and 3) discussing preclinical and clinical areas that require further investigation in order to increase the probability of successfully translating this rapidly emerging body of evidence into a clinically applicable therapeutic strategy for AMI.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 05/2014; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.05.016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on various diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and brain ischemia. However, whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease is still unknown. In this paper, we found that sEH expression is increased in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro pyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, and sEH deficiency and inhibition significantly attenuated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell loss and improved rotarod performance. The substrate of sEH, 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), protected TH-positive cells and alleviated the rotarod performance deficits of wild-type mice but not sEH-knockout mice. Moreover, the 14,15-EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-EEZE) abolished the neuronal protective effects of sEH deficiency. In primary cultured cortical neurons, MPP(+) induced significant Akt inactivation in neurons from sEH wild-type mice, and this effect was not observed in neurons from knockout mice. Our data indicate that sEH deficiency and inhibition increased 14,15-EET in MPTP-treated mice, which activated the Akt-mediated protection of TH-positive neurons and behavioral functioning. We also found that sEH deficiency attenuated TH-positive cell loss in a paraquat-induced mouse model of Parkinson's. Our data suggest that sEH inhibition might be a powerful tool to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease.
    Molecular Neurobiology 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12035-014-8833-3
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The signs of metabolic syndrome following chronic excessive macronutrient intake include body weight gain, excess visceral adipose deposition, hyperglycaemia, glucose and insulin intolerances, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, endothelial damage, cardiovascular hypertrophy, inflammation, ventricular contractile dysfunction, fibrosis, and fatty liver disease. Recent studies show increased activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) during obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We have tested whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. In these high-carbohydrate, high-fat-fed rats, chronic oral treatment with trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), a potent sEH inhibitor, alleviated the signs of metabolic syndrome in vivo including glucose, insulin, and lipid abnormalities, changes in pancreatic structure, increased systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities, and structural and functional changes in the liver. The present study describes the pharmacological responses to this selective sEH inhibitor in rats with the signs of diet-induced metabolic syndrome.
    Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2012; 2012:758614. DOI:10.1155/2012/758614