Role of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Postischemic Recovery of Heart Contractile Function

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.02). 09/2006; 99(4):442-50. DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000237390.92932.37
Source: PubMed


Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) which are converted to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH). To examine the functional role of sEH in the heart, mice with targeted disruption of the Ephx2 gene were studied. Hearts from sEH null mice have undetectable levels of sEH mRNA and protein and cannot convert EETs to DHETs. sEH null mice have normal heart anatomy and basal contractile function, but have higher fatty acid epoxide:diol ratios in plasma and cardiomyocyte cell culture media compared with wild type (WT). sEH null hearts have improved recovery of left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and less infarction compared with WT hearts after 20 minutes ischemia. Perfusion with the putative EET receptor antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (10 to 100 nmol/L) before ischemia abolishes this cardioprotective phenotype. Inhibitor studies demonstrate that perfusion with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin (200 nmol/L) or LY294002 (5 micromol/L), the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K(ATP)) inhibitor glibenclamide (1 micromol/L), the mitochondrial K(ATP) (mitoK(ATP)) inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (100 to 200 micromol/L), or the Ca2+-sensitive K+ channel (K(Ca)) inhibitor paxilline (10 micromol/L) abolishes the cardioprotection in sEH null hearts. Consistent with increased activation of the PI3K cascade, sEH null mice exhibit increased cardiac expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) phospho-protein after ischemia. Together, these data suggest that targeted disruption of sEH increases the availability of cardioprotective EETs that work by activating PI3K signaling pathways and K+ channels.

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    • "Among different tissues, the sEH enzyme is highly expressed in the liver, followed by the kidney, and then other tissues and is mainly localized in the cytosol, microsomes, and peroxisomes (Oesch et al., 1986; Wang et al., 1982; Yu et al., 2004). Within the heart, it has been reported that sEH enzyme is expressed in cardiomyocytes (Enayetallah et al., 2004; Motoki et al., 2008; Seubert et al., 2006; Xu et al., 2006). Also, it has been reported that sEH is expressed in blood "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A plethora of studies have demonstrated the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzymes in the heart and other cardiovascular tissues. In addition, the expression of these enzymes is altered during several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including cardiac hypertrophy (CH). The alteration in CYP and sEH expression results in derailed CYP-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. In animal models of CH, it has been reported that there is an increase in 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and a decrease in epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Further, inhibiting 20-HETE production by CYP ω-hydroxylase inhibitors and increasing EET stability by sEH inhibitors have been proven to protect against CH as well as other CVDs. Therefore, CYP-mediated AA metabolites 20-HETE and EETs are potential key players in the pathogenesis of CH. Some studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms by which these metabolites mediate their effects on cardiomyocytes and vasculature leading to pathological CH. Activation of several intracellular signaling cascades, such as nuclear factor of activated T cells, nuclear factor kappa B, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Rho-kinases, Gp130/signal transducer and activator of transcription, extracellular matrix degradation, apoptotic cascades, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress, has been linked to the pathogenesis of CH. In this review, we discuss how 20-HETE and EETs can affect these signaling pathways to result in, or protect from, CH, respectively. However, further understanding of these metabolites and their effects on intracellular cascades will be required to assess their potential translation to therapeutic approaches for the prevention and/or treatment of CH and heart failure.
    Drug Metabolism Reviews 05/2013; 45(2):173-95. DOI:10.3109/03602532.2012.754460 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    • "These data suggest that the aging process correlates with increased markers of oxidative stress in mice overexpressing cardiac CYP2J2. EET-mediated signaling is known to cause activation of several protein kinases such as PI3K, Akt, PKC␧ and PKA, where kinase inhibition will significantly attenuate EET-mediated effects [1] [9] [10] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardioprotective effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have been demonstrated in models of young mice with either the cardiomyocyte specific over-expression of cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2 Tr) or deletion of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH null). In this study we examined differences in EET-induced cardioprotection in young (2 months) and aged (12 months) CYP2J2 Tr and sEHnull mice using Langendorff isolated perfused heart model. Improved postischemic functional recovery was observed in both young and aged sEH null mice compared to age matched WT. Conversely, the cardioprotective effect observed in young CYP2J2 Tr was lost in aged CYP2J2 Tr mice. The loss of cardioprotection in aged CYP2J2 Tr was regained following perfusion with the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB. Data demonstrated increased levels of leukotoxin diol (DiHOME) and oxidative stress as well decreased protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation in aged CYP2J2 Tr. In conclusion, inhibition of sEH and EET-induced cardioprotection is maintained in aged mice. However, the loss of protective effects observed in aged CYP2J2 Tr might be attributed to increased levels of DiHOME, oxidative stress and/or decreased PP2A activity.
    Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 08/2012; 104. DOI:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2012.08.001 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    • "AUDA modulated cytokine secretion and inflammatory cell infiltration at the site of injury, and may have had an effect on renal recovery through activation of HIF-1α and subsequent neovascularization. A few studies have demonstrated a protective effect of sEH inhibitors against IRI such as in stroke [15], [16] or ischemia-induced myocardial damage [17]–[19]. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that sEH inhibition can also effectively protect against IRI-induced renal damage. "
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    ABSTRACT: Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in endothelial cells determines the plasma concentrations of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which may act as vasoactive agents to control vascular tone. We hypothesized that the regulation of sEH activity may have a therapeutic value in preventing acute kidney injury by controlling the concentration of EETs. In this study, we therefore induced ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in C57BL/6 mice and controlled sEH activity by intraperitoneal administration of the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA). The deterioration of kidney function induced by IRI was partially moderated and prevented by AUDA treatment. In addition, AUDA treatment significantly attenuated tubular necrosis induced by IRI. Ischemic injury induced the down-regulation of sEH, and AUDA administration had no effect on the expression pattern of sEH induced by IRI. In vivo sEH activity was assessed by measuring the substrate epoxyoctadecenoic acid (EpOME) and its metabolite dihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid (DHOME). Ischemic injury had no effects on the plasma concentrations of EpOME and DHOME, but inhibition of sEH by AUDA significantly increased plasma EpOME and the EpOME/DHOME ratio. The protective effect of the sEH inhibitor was achieved by suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of regulatory cytokines. AUDA treatment prevented the intrarenal infiltration of inflammatory cells, but promoted endothelial cell migration and neovascularization. The results of this study suggest that treatment with sEH inhibitors can reduce acute kidney injury.
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e37075. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0037075 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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