High dexamethasone concentration prevents stimulatory effects of TNF-α and LPS on IL-6 secretion from the precursors of human muscle regeneration
ABSTRACT A frequent finding in patients surviving critical illness myopathy is chronic muscle dysfunction. Its pathogenesis is mostly unknown; one explanation could be that muscle regeneration, which normally follows myopathy, is insufficient in these patients because of a high glucocorticoid level in their blood. Glucocorticoids can prevent stimulatory effects of proinflammatory factors on the interleukin (IL)-6 secretion, diminishing in this way the autocrine and paracrine IL-6 actions known to stimulate proliferation at the earliest, myoblast stage of muscle formation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of major proinflammatory agents [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] on the IL-6 secretion from the muscle precursors and then studied the influence of dexamethasone (Dex) on these effects. Mononuclear myoblasts, which still proliferate, were compared with myotubes in which this capacity is already lost. For correct interpretation of results, cultures were examined for putative apoptosis and necrosis. We found that constitutive secretion of IL-6 did not differ significantly between myoblasts and myotubes; however, the TNF-alpha- and LPS-stimulated IL-6 release was more pronounced (P < 0.001) in myoblasts. Dex, applied at the 0.1-100 nM concentration range, prevented constitutive and TNF-alpha- and LPS-stimulated IL-6 release at both developmental stages but only at high concentration (P < 0.01). Although there are still missing links to it, our results support the concept that high concentrations of glucocorticoids, met in critically ill patients, prevent TNF-alpha- and LPS-stimulated IL-6 secretion. This results in reduced IL-6-mediated myoblast proliferation, leading to the reduced final mass of the regenerated muscle.
- SourceAvailable from: Mitja Lainscak
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "TNFí µí»¼ and LPS cause apoptosis in some cell types we tested our cultures for this effect. Apoptosis was assessed by the DNA fragmentation and nuclear chromatin examination, as described . For DNA fragmentation we harvest cells treated with TNF-í µí»¼ and LPS; total DNA was isolated using the Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). "
ABSTRACT: Myoblast proliferation and myotube formation are critical early events in skeletal muscle regeneration. The attending inflammation and cytokine signaling are involved in regulation of skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Secretion of muscle-derived cytokines upon exposure to inflammatory factors may depend on the differentiation stage of regenerating muscle cells. Cultured human myoblasts and myotubes were exposed to 24-hour treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a major muscle-derived cytokine, and interleukin 1 (IL-1), an important regulator of inflammatory response, was measured 24 hours after termination of TNF- α or LPS treatment. Myoblasts pretreated with TNF- α or LPS displayed robustly increased IL-6 secretion during the 24-hour period after removal of treatments, while IL-1 secretion remained unaltered. IL-6 secretion was also increased in myotubes, but the response was less pronounced compared with myoblasts. In contrast to myoblasts, IL-1 secretion was markedly stimulated in LPS-pretreated myotubes. We demonstrate that preceding exposure to inflammatory factors stimulates a prolonged upregulation of muscle-derived IL-6 and/or IL-1 in cultured skeletal muscle cells. Our findings also indicate that cytokine response to inflammatory factors in regenerating skeletal muscle partially depends on the differentiation stage of myogenic cells.The Scientific World Journal 02/2013; 2013:617170. DOI:10.1155/2013/617170 · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) from human myoblasts was determined using Endogen Human IL-6 ELISA Kit (Pierce Endogen, USA) as described previously . IL-6 concentration was mea- Fig. 1. "
ABSTRACT: Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) and oximes may interfere with other molecules than AChE in the living systems, affecting in this way various cellular processes and underlying mechanisms. These non-cholinergic effects may contribute to the clinical status in OP poisoning and therefore deserve equal scientific attention. Here, we investigated the effects of tabun and oxime K048 on the processes known to be involved in muscle response to the environmental factors, like IL-6 release and the regulation of the heat shock proteins (HSPs). While IL-6 stimulates muscle regeneration, which follows well known OP-induced myopathy, HSPs have cytoprotective effect against various stress factors including xenobiotics. All our experiments were carried out on cultured human myoblasts, as the precursors of muscle regeneration. We found unchanged AChE mRNA level after tabun/K048 treatment meaning that tabun and K048 did not interfere with the transcription or stability of this mRNA in the time period tested, even if AChE catalytic activity was significantly affected. On the other hand, after myoblast exposure to tabun, we observed significant changes in the protein levels of HSP 27 and in the secretion of IL-6. Namely, secretion of IL-6 decreased to 53% and the level of HSP 27 increased by 34% compared to the control level. Both effects were attenuated if myoblasts were pretreated with oxime K048, but not if they were treated with K048 after exposure to tabun. The molecular mechanism underlying these effects remains to be elucidated. However, it seems that these effects could be associated with OPs and oximes as a specific group of compounds rather than as a specific compound itself. Overall, the effects of OPs and oximes demonstrated here might play an important role in muscle regeneration which importantly determines the final outcome of OP myotoxicity.Chemico-biological interactions 10/2012; 203(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2012.09.015 · 2.98 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoid levels is known to produce insulin resistance (IR), a hallmark of diabetes mellitus. Although not fully elucidated, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which glucocorticoids induce IR may provide potential targets for pharmacological interventions. Here we characterized muscle lipid metabolism in a dexamethasone-aggravated diet-induced obesity murine model of IR. Male C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet for 2 months when challenged with dexamethasone showed elevated food consumption and weight gain relative to age and diet-matched animals dosed with saline only. Dexamethasone treatment impaired glucose tolerance and significantly increased the intramyocellular lipid content in the tibialis anterior muscle (TA). A good correlation (r = 0.76, P < 0.01) was found between accumulation in intramyocellular lipid content in the TA and visceral adiposity. The linoleic acid (18:2) to polyunsaturated acid ratio was increased in the dexamethasone-treated animals (+29%; P < 0.01), suggesting a possible increase in stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 activity, as reported in Sertoli cells. The treatment was also accompanied by a reduction in the percent fraction of omega-3 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the TA. Analysis of the low-molecular-weight metabolites from muscle extracts showed that there was no dysregulation of muscle amino acids, as has been associated with dexamethasone-induced muscle proteolysis. In conclusion, dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice is associated with a profound perturbation of lipid metabolism. This is particularly true in the muscle, in which an increased uptake of circulating lipids along with a conversion into diabetogenic lipids can be observed.Endocrinology 02/2008; 149(2):758-66. DOI:10.1210/en.2007-1214 · 4.64 Impact Factor