Conjugated linolenic acid is slowly absorbed in rat intestine, but quickly converted to conjugated linoleic acid

Laboratory of Food and Biomolecular Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555, Japan.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 4.23). 08/2006; 136(8):2153-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We showed previously that alpha-eleostearic acid (alpha-ESA; 9Z11E13E-18:3) is converted to 9Z11E-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in rats through a Delta13-saturation reaction. To investigate this further, we examined the absorption and metabolism of alpha-ESA in rat intestine using a lipid absorption assay in lymph from the thoracic duct. In this study, we used 4 test oils [tung oil, perilla oil, CLA-triacylglycerol (TG), and pomegranate seed oil, containing alpha-ESA, alpha-linolenic acid (LnA; 9Z12Z15Z-18:3), CLA, and punicic acid (PA; 9Z11E13Z-18:3), respectively]. Emulsions containing the test oils were administered to rats, and lymph from the thoracic duct was collected over 24 h. The positional and geometrical isomerism of CLA produced by PA metabolism was determined using GC-electron impact (EI)-MS and (13)C-NMR, respectively; the product was confirmed to be 9Z11E-CLA. A part of alpha-ESA and PA was converted to 9Z11E-CLA 1 h after administration; therefore the lymphatic recoveries of alpha-ESA and PA were modified by the amount of recovered CLA. Cumulative recovery of CLA, alpha-ESA, and PA was lower than that of LnA only during h 1 (P < 0.05), and cumulative recovery of alpha-ESA and PA was significantly lower than that of LnA and CLA for 8 h (P < 0.05). Therefore, the absorption rate was LnA > CLA > alpha-ESA = PA. The conversion ratio of alpha-ESA to 9Z11E-CLA was higher than that of PA to 9Z11E-CLA over 24 h (P < 0.05). These results indicated that alpha-ESA and PA are slowly absorbed in rat intestine, and a portion of these fatty acids is quickly converted to 9Z11E-CLA.

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    • "Inside in vivo system however , the action of CLnAs largely depends on its permeability across GI tract which directly implies its bioavailabilty . Moreover , transport of CLnA across GI tract is very slow and involves quick conversion into conjugated linoleic acid ( CLA ) ( Tsuzuki et al . 2006 ) thereby limiting its efficacy . The absorption of CLnA can be improved significantly by converting the lipid fractions comprising them into nanoemulsions due to : i ) the presence of surfactants which enhances penetration across cellular membranes due to its amphiphilicity ( Kreilgaard 2002 ) ; ii ) uptake of hydrophobic bioactive age"
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    ABSTRACT: The present work entailed perspicacious fabrication of Bitter Gourd Seed Oil Nanoemulsion (BGO-NE) for increasing bioavailability of CLnA in oxidative stress induced in vivo system. The BGO-NE was characterized and evaluated for dimensional as well as rheological changes periodically during a 12 week storage period. BGO comprising ∼50 % α-eleostearic acid, was assessed in conventional and NE formulation at different doses, for its ability to stimulate antioxidative enzyme marker paradigm comprising SOD, GPx, CAT and GSH, inherent to the subjects under study. The formulated BGO-NE (d < 100 nm) was found to be stable for 12 weeks compared to BGO-CE as was determined by particle size characterization and associated parameters. Diet supplementation of 0.5 % (w/v) BGO-NE formulation exhibited maximum efficiency in countering oxidative stress as compared to 1 % BGO-NE formulation and equivalent doses of BGO-CE. Higher efficacy at very low dose of the nano-sized formulation was thus, also established. Histopathological data from liver, pancreas and kidney sections corroborated the above findings. The present study with formulated BGO-NE and BGO-CE evaluates and confirms the implications of a NE formulation of a bioactive lipid - conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), targeting specific in vivo processes to counter the negative influence of excess ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) in the system. It, thus presents itself as a potent nutraceutical against diabetes mellitus in an optimized delivery system.
    Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 09/2014; 51(9). DOI:10.1007/s13197-014-1257-2 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Interestingly, CLnA can be converted to CLA; e.g. c9,t11,t13-CLnA and c9,t11,c13-CLnA to c9,t11-CLA in rats [17] and c9,t11,c13-CLnA to c9,t11-CLA in humans [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated fatty acids (CFAs) exhibit growth inhibitory effects on colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. To investigate whether the anticancerogenic potency depends on number or configuration of the conjugated double bonds, the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; C18:2) isomers and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA; C18:3) isomers on viability and growth of HT-29 cells were compared. Low concentrations of CLnAs (<10μM) yielded a higher degree of inhibitory effects compared to CLAs (40μM). All trans-CFAs were more effective compared to cis/trans-CFAs as follows: t9,t11,t13-CLnA≥c9,t11,t13-CLnA>t11,t13-CLA≥t9,t11-CLA>c9,t11-CLA. The mRNA expression analysis of important genes associated with fatty acid metabolism showed an absence of ∆5-/∆6-desaturases and elongases in HT-29 cells, which was confirmed by fatty acid analysis. Using time- and dose-dependent stimulation experiments several metabolites were determined. Low concentrations of all trans-CFAs (5-20μM) led to dose-dependent increase of conjugated t/t-C16:2 formed by β-oxidation of C18 CFAs, ranging from 1-5% of total FAME. Importantly, it was found that CLnA is converted to CLA and that CLA is inter-converted (t11,t13-CLA is metabolized to c9,t11-CLA) by HT-29 cells. In summary, our study shows that growth inhibition of human cancer cells is associated with a specific cellular transcriptomic and metabolic profile of fatty acid metabolism, which might contribute to the diversified ability of CFAs as anti-cancer compounds.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2011; 1811(12):1070-80. DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.08.005 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    • "The fatty acid composition of the oil diets was measured using gas chromatography , as described previously [18] [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of fish oil including ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on aging and lifespan are not well understood. In this study, the influence of long-term ingestion of fish oil on lifespan was examined in senescence-accelerated (SAMP8) mice. We investigated the effects of dietary fish oil on lifespan and on lipid composition and oxidative stress in plasma and liver in SAMP8 mice. Male mice were fed a fish oil diet (5% fish oil and 5% safflower oil) or a safflower oil diet (10% safflower oil) from 12 wk of age. The SAMP8 mice fed fish oil did not have a longer maximum lifespan and had a shorter average lifespan than mice fed safflower oil. To examine the mechanism underlying these results, the effects on oxidative stress of long-term ingestion of fish oil were also examined. SAMP8 mice fed fish oil for 28 wk showed strong oxidative stress that caused hyperoxidation of membrane phospholipids and a diminished antioxidant defense system due to a decrease in tocopherol compared with mice fed safflower oil. These findings suggest that intake of fish oil increases oxidative stress, decreases cellular function, and causes organ dysfunction in SAMP8 mice, thereby promoting aging and shortening the lifespan of the mice.
    Nutrition 03/2011; 27(3):334-7. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2010.05.017 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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